Welcome to the David Victor Vector Blog

Welcome to the David Victor Vector blog. This is blog that covers religious observances around the world international affairs and global business. This blog describes religious holidays for most major religions as well as raising issues dealing with globalization, international business ethics, cross-cultural business communication and political events affecting business in an integrated world economy. I look forward your discussion and commentary on these articles and subjects. Enjoy!

Monday, February 4, 2019

Year of the Brown Earth Pig 2019: Some Background

Tuesday, February 5, 2019 begins the Year of the Pig. It is the beginning of the year 4716 (in some traditions, 4717) in the Asian lunar system, which is the Year of the Brown Earth Pig.

For most of the East Asian zodiacs, the pig is a domestic pig. We should note that in the Tibetan zodiac and some Japanese zodiac renderings, the big is usually represented by a boar or wild pig. In the small Dai ethnic community of China's Yunnan Province, the pig is replaced with an elephant. In all version, the animal (pig, boar or elephant) is in the last place of the 12 animals.

In today’s posting, I would like to share with you some specifics about the Year of the Pig as well as some background to the Asian Zodiac system as a whole.

That said, you may also be interested in reading a few related posts on

1)  Lunar New Year Customs around the world at

2)  Business Impact In years past, I have posted separately in the  the business effects from travel to special editions of coins, stamps and gifts for the Lunar New Year around the world. I have not had the chance to do so this year. You may find the post from last year of value in giving an idea of this. Here is the post from the Year of the Dog in 2018: https://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2018/02/year-of-dog-business-impact.html 

3) Celebrations around the world. Likewise in years past I have listed roughly 250 celebrations held around the world outside of countries where the majority of the population celebrates the Lunar New Year. Unfortunately, here too I have not had time to complete the list this year (or last year). Still, most of the sites listed in the post for the Year of the Rooster in 2017 are still active. You can go there also to see which places have the Lunar New Year as a national holiday. Here is the link for the 2017 list: https://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2017/01/year-of-rooster-2017-xxx-celebrations.html

The Asian Zodiac Briefly Explained

The Asian Zodiac (or horoscope) associated with the Asian or Chinese New Year is taken very seriously by those who follow it in their tradition. The significance attributed to the combinations associated with the Asian horoscope affect business decisions, dates selected for important events such as weddings, and many other aspects of daily life. These views are widely shared, with a larger following than any single religion -- Western or Eastern. As a result, these beliefs should be treated with the respect accorded a religious belief (rather than with that of superstition as Western astrology is sometimes treated).

The Lunar Calendar

Because the Asian lunar calendar follows the moon, it seems to move within our solar-based Gregorian calendar. Moreover, the Gregorian calendar does not correspond fully with the Asian lunar calendar. Thus, February 5 marks the beginning of the Asian lunar calendar only this year for the Year of the Pig in 2019. For instance, it began last year on February 16 for the Year of the Dog in 2018, January 28 for the Year of the Rooster in 2017; February 8, 2016 for the Year of the Monkey, and so forth. 

The Twelve Animals of the Zodiac

The lunar calendar runs on a cycle of 12 years each represented by an animal.  The animals all have a balance of compatibility or incompatibility as represented in their place in the circle of the 12-year cycle. This year is the Year of the Pig, the last and 12th animal in the cycle. 

The 12 Animals of the Zodiac

The 12 animals in their order are

  1. Rat
  2. Ox
  3. Tiger
  4. Rabbit
  5. Dragon
  6. Snake
  7. Horse
  8. Ram/Sheep/Goat
  9. Monkey
  10. Rooster
  11. Dog
  12. Pig

Each animal corresponds to a month of the lunar year. The dog, this year's governing animal, corresponds to the 11th animal in the cycle.

The Five Elements of the Wu Xing Cycle

Additionally, each 12-year cycle of animals runs on an additional cycle corresponding to the Wu Xing cycle of the five traditional Chinese elements. These are
  1. metal
  2. fire
  3. wood
  4. water
  5. earth
  6. Wu Xing Cycle

The five elements are in balance with each other, the basis of much of feng shui.

Combined, each element combines with each animal over a period of 60 years.  The current 12-year cycle combines with the element of Earth.

Each element is also associated with a color. In the case of earth, that color is brown.

Thus, this year is the Year of the Brown Earth Pig.


Spiritual Importance of the Asian Horoscope

Many followers of the Asian zodiac have a formal religious belief in the importance of the animal element combinations associated with each year in the 60-year cycle. This is clearly the case for those practicing Taoism.

For Taoists, the New Year is always of religious significance. This because in Taoism, the Lunar New Year's first day is a time when lesser deities or spirits are believed to ascend to the throne of the Jade Emperor (King of Heaven).  In Taoist tradition, the 12 animals were in a contest to greet the Jade Emperor; a 13th animal – the cat – was tricked by the rat (about five variations of how exist), which explains why cats have hated rats ever since.  A children's version of this story is told in an very pleasant rendition at the Topmarks education site. I encourage you to take a look at this version at 

The 12 Zodiac animals
in their race

The New Year is a religious event as well for a great number of the sects of Buddhism, and most famously for Tibetan Buddhists. In Buddhist tradition, the 12 animals were in a race to do honor to Lord Buddha on the eve of his death.  The rat and cat story is part of this tradition, too.  

The pig arrived last in the race. No animal was displaced by the pig, so no animals felt resentful or in competition with it. Some traditions have the pig oversleeping, and this carries with it that pig people are late-starters or, less kindly, tending toward laziness.  Some versions have the pig setting off late because a wolf had destroyed its home and the pig was too responsible to leave the house in ruins before taking off (in this version, then, the pig is viewed as responsible and industrious -- the opposite of the lazy association). Some version of the story explain that the pig simply got too hungry to continue and so stopped to eat before finishing the race. While this may seem to be a negative reason, in fact, the East Asian tradition associates this version of the story with pig people being well-fed (and relatedly, well off monetarily). The last version of the story is simply that the pig was last simply because, as the stoutest of the animals, it was simply too slow too slow to arrive any earlier. In this association of the story, the pig demonstrated dedication in the face of adversity. In all versions of the story, the pig arrived just as the Jade Emperor was preparing to leave. The pig oinked desperately and the oinking caught the Jade Emperor's attention just in time. 

Incidentally, the rat was the first animal to greet Buddha.  He did so by helping the ox (which had poor eyesight) find his way across a stream by riding on his head.  When the two reached Lord Buddha on the other shore, the rat jumped off the ox’s head, reaching Lord Buddha first.  

Additionally, though Confucianism is not technically a religion (but rather a philosophical system), its followers also traditional observe the lunar New Year to show reverence to their ancestors.  Because of this, even Christians and practitioners of other faiths in such countries as  as Korea, Bhutan or Vietnam generally celebrate the holiday. The same holds true for those people in cultures with strong Confucian customs who have no religion at all or for those with mixed traditions.

Chinese Astrology Not A Particular Accurate Term

The system discussed here is often called Chinese astrology. This is a misnomer for two reasons.  First, the holiday is far more widely observed than in just China, especially in Korea, Singapore, Bhutan, Japan, Tibet, Mongolia and Vietnam as well as those from these backgrounds living in other countries. 

I have described the holiday in general in this post. In a future post, I will discuss followed the culturally specific differences in customs at the close of this summary.

East Asian lunar zodiac
That said, for all the culturally diverse places in which the Asian New Year is celebrated, the calendar on which it is based does have its origins in China. The first written records of the calendar and the celebration of the New Year date to China’s Shang Dynasty (1766-1050 BC), although traditionally it is believed to date back to the rule of the semi-mythical Yellow Emperor Huang Di around 2600 BC.

A second reason the phrase Chinese astrology is a misnomer is that the system really has nothing to do with constellations as astrology does in the West. It is less a reading of the stars than an interpretation of the importance of the time, date and year in which one is born.  To the extent that when one is born matters to Western-style astrology, there is a correspondence. Moreover, there is another similarity as the five elements in the system, in fact, do correspond with the five planets known in ancient China.

Tang Dynasty (8th Century), Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xian, China

Because of these corresponding commonalities with Western astrology, many people call the Asian system’s combinations of animals and elements the lunar or Chinese “horoscope”.  This is a bit of a misnomer, however, not only for the reasons just described but because the way in which people view the two “horoscopes” is very different.  

The difference here is that many people (although with many exceptions) in Europe, Australia and the Americas consider the Western zodiac horoscope of star signs (Scorpio, Sagittarius, etc.) to be a form of superstition, a game or something believed only partially. 

This is NOT the case with the Asian lunar horoscope cycle, where people follow their sign very seriously. As a result, the system, though it transcends that of any specific religion, should be treated with the respect accorded religious beliefs. In any case, the point here is that in a cross-cultural and inter-religious sense, the issue of lunar horoscope animal element signs should be treated with respect.

Personality Traits and Asian Astrological Year

Year of the Pig sidewalk plate
Philadelphia Chinatown
Many people attribute a great deal of significance to the personality traits attributed to the animal associated with the year in which they are born. These are not something that people take lightly.

Each animal has its own traits, and then each animal and element combination has their own subtraits. These are explained later in the blog.

As with all Asian Lunar zodiac animals, pigs have both positive and negative attributes. 

Positive Pig Traits

On the whole, among the zodiac animals, the pig is generally very favorably viewed. This contrasts with Western cultures where pigs often have a negative attribute (dirty, lowly or worse). This contrasts even more with Muslim and Jewish religious cultures where the pig is forbidden as haram (not halal) or tref (not kosher). It would be a cross-cultural error to attribute these associations with pigs with the way in which those who follow the Asian zodiac view pigs. 

Pig people (and thus the effects of the Year of the Pig) are associated with wealth, fertility and material things. Pig people shy aware from abstract things, preferring the things that they own to be possessions that they can hold in their hands or see with their eyes. 

Building on this emphasis on the material, pig people prefer to show rather than tell; they demonstrate through their actions more than through their words. As a result, pig people generally do not make much of a fuss; however, they are famously hard workers (after all, despite whatever made the pig last in the Jade Emperor's race, the pig persevered and overcame whatever obstacles it faced). Pig people are slow but steady. 

Pig people are (very) quietly driven toward success, particularly monetary success. They believe that only once people are in a position of true monetary security is it appropriate to speak up. Thus, pig people strive to attain power and only then make their opinions known. The metaphor supporting this is that the pig, arriving last, did indeed make it into the dozen chosen special animals. Only when arriving at the finish line did the pig begin to draw attention to itself since the pig had in fact earned a place in the zodiac. When the Jade Emperor heard the oinking of the pig, he rewarded the pig with its rightful place in the zodiac.

Boar and grasses, Japanese wooden netsuke,
Meiji Period (1868-1912), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Pig people are generally viewed as the most honest of the zodiac animals. This has, as with all zodiac animal traits, a good and a bad side to it. On the good side, pig people allow those whom they trust to know where they stand and what the truth really is, without holding back. Yet pig people famously are slow to share their views, withholding their opinions and input until they can put them into words. As a result, when pig people finally do share what they see as the truth -- even painful truths -- others rarely find it offensive. 

Man-Ho Kwok in his book on Chinese Astrology approaches this from a somewhat different angle, noting that Pig people:
are well-liked for their honest and affectionate nature, and when others disappear, [they] are often there to offer support. (p. 34).
Pig people have the tendency to see things through to the end. Man-Ho Kwok explains that pig people
like to assess how much work is in front of [them[ and then take it step by step, progressing slowly but surely. (p. 35)
Pig people are said to be naturally generous, when they are convinced of a worthy cause. They take a long time to decide whether to give, but when they do so, they give substantially.  Moreover, because pig people are inclined to acquire material and financial wealth, they have the means to follow through with their promises. 

The Year of the Pig is the most fertile of the zodiac animal years. Babies born in the Year of the Pig have the greatest chance of being healthy as symbolized by the fatness of the pig itself. As discussed in the business impact post, this results in a swamping of hospitals and baby care facilities throughout East Asia every 12 years when the Year of the Pig comes around.

Negative Pig Traits

The negative side of the slow to speak trait of pig people is that pig people may not have the chance to share how they feel as others have already spoken -- and often already acted -- before they ever get around to speaking. 

Relatedly, while pig people are famously slow to speak or open up to others, once they do begin letting others in, they risk opening themselves up to the point where others may take advantage of them. The honesty of pig people in such cases results in an overly trusting and even naive nature.

Pig people are slow. Just as the pig came in last in the race of the Jade Emperor, pig people come into their own later than the other signs. This means that they do not do well with change, particularly rapid change. Rather pig people plan thoroughly before acting and then come into their own late in the game, whether that be on a given project or literally late in life.

Some debate exists as to whether to view people born in the Year of the Pig as over-indulgent or simply as having the ability to enjoy the material pleasures that seem to come to them. This depends on how pig people are viewed by other signs. For those born under animal signs that attribute the pig's ability to accumulate wealth through pure good fortune, the slow and steady pig approach is seen as laziness. For those who view the pig's wealth as resulting from persistence, pig people are seen as earning their material good fortune. 

Likewise, some debate exists as to whether people born in the Year of the Pig as unintelligent. The most sympathetic reading is that pigs have great difficulty putting what they want to say in words. They are not, in such a view, slow-witted as much as slow to speak. Where agreement does occur on this point is that pig people are too trusting of others, with the attendant liability that others can take advantage of them.

Finally, pig people are viewed as one of the least imaginative of the animal signs. This is less that those born in the Year of the Pig are unable to view larger plans, but rather that they find it very difficult deviate from a course once set in motion. 

Compatibility With Other Signs

Pig people are among the most liked of all the zodiac signs. In parallel to the race, the pig made it to the end of the animals honoring the Jade Emperor through its own hard work and, coming last, displaced no other animal. Most zodiac signs like pig people.

Shang Dynasty Pig-Shaped Wine Vessel
1600-1050 BCE, Yunan Provincial Museum of Art
People born among all signs get along with those born in the Year of the Pig. The problem is less who pig people put at a disadvantage than of those zodiac signs that will take advantage of the pig person.

Poor compatibility.

Pig people are at greatest risk with those born in the Year of the Snake and the Year of the Monkey.

Pig people are slow to speak. They are excellent listeners but have difficulty communicating what they feel unless they have had time to mull over what they wish to say. In dealing with snake people and monkey people, the problems arise from a breakdown of communication.

Those born in the Year of the Snake are the least compatible for pig people. The slowness to decide and even greater slowness to speak makes pig people at greatest risk around those who decide and act quickly, which is the defining characteristic of people born in the Year of the Snake (who are decisive and strike quickly). Snake people are also viewed as the greediest of the signs and pig people the most generous -- this mismatch can have snake people taking advantage of pig people's generosity. 

This goes beyond simple personal incompatibility. The Year of the Pig is the most fraught with danger for snake as well and those with their characteristics. In other words, this is a bad year to speak without care or to act quickly and to be motivated by greed -- that is, to exemplify the characteristics of Year of the Snake people. Instead, the Year of the Pig requires slow responses and careful, long-term plans, and it is the worst year to let greed influence you.

Those born in the Year of the Monkey are also somewhat incompatible with pig people, though not as much as that for snake people. The slow and steady, hold-the-course character of pig people makes it difficult for them to adapt to change easily. Yet this is the defining quality of monkey people are are the most adept at adapting strategies to accommodate change -- even foreseeing things about to change. While this monkey trait may not necessarily harm pig people, it supposedly leaves them befuddled (and the monkey counterpart frustrated or bored). Also while not unintelligent, pig people are the most innocent and trusting of the 12 zodiac animals. As a result, pig people are confused and often misled by those born in the Year of the Monkey who as the intellectually sharpest of the zodiac animals. Monkey people's innate wit and charm can befuddle all of the signs but most of all the trusting and somewhat naive pig person. 

Again, this goes beyond simple personal incompatibility. The Year of the Pig is inauspicious for monkey people as well and those with their characteristics. In other words, this is a bad year for rapid change and high-powered intellectual plans -- that is, to exemplify the characteristics of Year of the Monkey people. By contrast, as Feng Shui Master Pun-Yin told the Asian Journal in an interview, the Year of the Pig calls for maintaining the “overall rhythm is to recover and reconstruct”

High Compatibility

Pig people are most compatible with those born in the Year of the Tiger, the Year of the Rabbit and the Year of the Sheep/Goat.

Pig people are the most generous and forgiving of the animal signs. They do not feel the need to always be right. Tiger people are the least forgiving of the animal signs, and have the strongest need to feel as if they are right. This opposite in the willingness to concede for long-term stability goes well with the tiger's need to be right in the short term. Both pig and tiger people sacrifice for those to whom they are committed. 

Pig people match with rabbit people equally well. Rabbit people are among the most watchful old the signs. This alertness to danger or being taken advantage of complements the pig person's overly trusting nature. The two balance each other out: the pig encouraging the rabbit to look past imagined danger; the rabbit alerting the pig to real dangers. Both rabbit and pig people are peaceful signs and both have a high demand for quality of life.

Finally, pig people share in common with sheep people a sense of being homebodies. Both are happy staying at home together offering one another shelter from the outside world. Both also share a strong appreciation for the material things in life.

Famous Pig People

Pig people tend to be long-term strategists. They do not communicate quickly, but when they do speak or write, what they have to say is carefully wrought. Representative of this trait of step-by-step long-term strategy are 

  • Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian (and later first German) Chancellor who step-by-step combined the smaller states of the German speaking world into what would become the nation of Germany
  • Thomas Jefferson, the American Revolutionary who drafted the Declaration of Independence and laid out a careful course for the expansion of the United States as a new nation
  • Carl Jung, the Swiss psychologist, a classic muller, who step by step laid out the direction of the Jungian method
  • Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish biologist who laboriously laid out the classification system for binomial classification of life forms used today
  • Alfred Hitchcock, the British filmmaker who carefully transformed film with detailed planning of each film 

Pig people also famously enter the stage late in life, as represented by 

  • US President Ronald Reagan (at the time the oldest US President ever elected)
  • Hillary Clinton (who waited through two administrations of her husband, the two more of President George W. Bush before entering the political scene)

Year of the Earth Pig Predictions

Predictions for the Year of the Earth Pig are based on the personality attributes ascribed to the characteristics believed to describe all people born under the Pig zodiac sign. The attributes of earth are then superimposed on this.

Whatever one's own view on such predictions personally may be, it is important to keep in mind that somewhere in the realm of one billion people believe such predictions to be true, with perhaps 500 million taking such predictions seriously enough to affect decisions on business, investments, marriage, and having children among others.

The personality attributes of people born in the Year of the Pig were described in greater detail above. Generally speaking they are people who are meticulously careful planners, slow to give their views and even slower to act. Once they begin on a project, they continue with pig-headed determination through to the end. The Year of the Pig is a time to regroup and think things through. It is a bad year for speaking before truly thinking things through.

Wealth and material things gravitate toward the pig, which is why it is the animal of prosperity. The Year of the Pig is a good one for gaining wealth. This association comes from the Chinese  As with most Asian Horoscope years, those believers born in a previous year of the same animal will meet with good fortune. 

This is an earth year. The central characteristic of years governed by the element of earth is steadiness, caution, pragmatism and faith. 

While steadiness and careful planning (not exactly caution) are pig traits that at first glance go well with these earth characteristics, this is not fully the case. The reason is that of the five elements, pigs are governed by water. Earth mixed with water makes for an unsupported foundation -- in other words, mud.

Because of this the Earth Pig (this year's elemental sign) is associated with surface harmony built on an unstable foundation. This is because the pig is tied to the element of water while this year is is tied to the element of earth. As Master Raymond Lo explains: "The Yin earth sitting on water Pig reflects the earth on an unstable foundation of water." This affects things that literally have to do with earth and water. For example, Master Lo predicts flooded mines and river flooding land. It also metaphorically affects politics and international relationships. Thus, Master Lo writes

However, as the yin earth element is sitting on water. The peace and harmony is merely superficial without foundation and solid support from below. Hence the peaceful atmosphere is fragile and there is under current of secretive hostility and so there will be terrorist activities and assassinations, unrest and rebellions in various parts of the world.

Master Paul Ng warns that

This is a conflicting year for the boar. You should try to be more mobile instead of sitting behind the desk. You must not gamble or speculate. Your regular income is fine. Beware of accidents.
Master Ng warns in particular about certain countries, which in turn has an effect on business practices. Master Ng predicts for the USA,  a "triple conflict center" dealing with "speculative money" and uncertain foreign policies; for Korea, an "illness center" weakening its high tech sector but strengthening its medical sector; for Japan, a "moving center" which is auspicious for the country's travel business; and for Canada and Russia both, a "learning center" suggesting a movement away from current ties (and predicting stronger ties with China). China, Master Ng predicts, is in the best position this year as 

in the wealth center of the world this year. Its economy will continue to climb up. It would be multi-facet, such as new models for retail, new types of business. It's trading would increase with both Europe and Third World countries.

It is important to keep in mind that while many outside of East Asia may look at this as amusing, between 500 million to 1 billion people take such predictions quite seriously. It is hard to tell if the predictions draw people to behave in certain ways thus becoming self-fulfilling prophecies (the non-believer view) or are accurately foretold (the believers' view). The reality, though, is that the predictions of someone of the standing of Master Lo or Master Ng (or any number of other master chart readers) have a direct impact on decision-making both in business (mining precautions this year, for instance), when to take action (think first long and hard before speaking let alone acting on something) and politics (tread carefully as what appears peaceful on the surface may well not have much foundation beneath it).  
Sow and piglets, Traditional Vietnamese Tranh dân gian Đông Hồ woodcut
Vietnam National Fine Arts Museum, Hanoi 

It is important to note that the animal of one’s birth year is not seen as fully able to stand on its own in understanding an individual’s personality traits and tendencies. These must at a minimum, as we have discussed, take into account the associated five elements. Additionally, East Asian astrologers account for the inner or secret animal assigned by the day of the month and hour of the day on which one is born.  In all, there are 8640 combinations (e.g., 12 months, 5 elements, 12 months, 12 times of day).

The prediction must be based an extensive reading for each person that varies according to where one is located and what one's own zodiac sign and time of birth are.

One prediction that seems safe to assume is that the Pig Museum (shown below) located in Icheon City, South Korea is heading for a good year. As Lee Jong-Young, the museum's curator told Reuters:

Pigs are considered to be a symbol of wealth and luck. The Year of the Pig is coming, so people will pay much more attention to pigs. The number of visitors this month is about 30 percent higher than the same period last year and the number of visits is expected to exceed 120,000 this year.

Pig Museum, Icheon City, South Korea

Whatever your outcome for the year, Happy Year of the Earth Pig!

Clip Art Sources:

Yin Yang animation: http://www.eharrishome.com/Kungfu.html

Boar and grasses, Japanese wooden netsuke, Meiji Period (1868-1912), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/91.1.989/

Tang Dynasty (8th Century), Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xian, China in Yongae Lim, "The 'Lion and Kunlun Slave' Image: A Motif of Buddhist Art Found in Unified Silla Funerary Sculpture, Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 18, no.2 October 2018, p. 169.

Year of the Pig sidewalk plate, Philadelphia Chinatown: Own photograph

The 12 Zodiac animals in their race:  http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/firefoxthief/zodiaccolor.jpg'

East Asian Lunar Zodiac:  http://www.china-family-adventure.com/chinese-zodiac.html

Shang Dynasty Pig-Shaped Wine Vessel 1600-1050 BCE, Yunan Provincial Museum of Art, Google Art Project, https://www.techinasia.com/google-art-project-china-museum

Sow and piglets, Traditional Vietnamese Tranh dân gian Đông Hồ woodcut, Vietnam National Fine Arts Museum, Hanoi: https://vnfam.vn/en/artifact/5aed6f25b69f1a002677a5ab

Pig Museum, Icheon City, South Korea: https://www.wtvy.com/content/news/Pig-museum-a-hit-in-Korea-as-Year-of-the-Pig-approaches-504539492.html

Closing clip art: https://www.istockphoto.com/ca/illustrations/year-of-the-pig?mediatype=illustration&phrase=year%20of%20the%20pig&sort=mostpopular

Want to Learn More

For more on the Year of the Pig for 2019, please see for serious astrologers:

Jayashree Bose, Feng Shui & Astrology 2019: The Year of the Pig, Amazon Digital Services, 2018.

Linda Dearsley, Success in the Year of the Pig 2019, Amazon Digital Services, 2018. 

Susan Levitt, "2019 Pig Chinese New Year": https://susanlevitt.com/astrology/pig-year-2019/ 

Master Paul Ng, "Predictions for 2019: Year off the Earth Boar," https://www.paulng.com/dev/CmnNewsUpload_5/2019.pdf

Master Raymond Lo, The Year of the Pig," October 16, 2018: http://www.raymond-lo.com/p/14533/nr/100045/the-year-of-the-dog

Christine Oriel, "What to expect during the Year of the Pig" Asian Journal, January 29, 2019, https://www.asianjournal.com/magazines/mdwk-magazine/what-to-expect-during-the-year-of-the-earth-pig/    

Reuters, "Pig museum a hit in Korea as Year of the Pig approaches, January 18, 2019, https://www.wtvy.com/content/news/Pig-museum-a-hit-in-Korea-as-Year-of-the-Pig-approaches-504539492.html

Donna Stellhorn, Chinese Astrology 2019 Year of the Earth Pig, Amazon Digital Services, 2018.

Master Tsai, "2019 Chinese Zodiac Pig Year Dates and Meaning":  https://www.chinesefortunecalendar.com/2019/default.htm 

Master Simon Wong, Year of the Pig: 2019 Feng Shui & Chinese Astrology, Amazon Digital Services, 2018.

Dato Joey Yap, Chinese Astrology for 2019: The Year of the Earth Pig, Kuala Lumpur: Joey Yap Research Group Sdn Bhd, 2018.

For more on the Asian Zodiac and Astrology in General, please see:

Richard Craze, Handbook of Chinese Astrology, Lorenz Books, 2013.

Camlo de Ville,  "The Fascinating World of Chinese Astrology," http://camlodedragon.com

Man-ho Kwok, Chinese Astrology: Forecast Your Future from Your Chinese Horoscope, Tuttle Publishing, 1997.

Theodora Lau and Laura Lau, The Handbook of Chinese Horoscopes (7th edition), Collins Reference, 2010.

Susan Levitt and Jean Tang, Taoist Astrology: A Handbook of the Authentic Chinese Tradition, Destiny Books, 1997.

Kah Joon Liow, "12 Chinese Zodiac Sign," Living Chinese Symbols http://www.living-chinese-symbols.com/12-chinese-zodiac-sign.html

David W. Pankenier, Astrology and Cosmology in Early China: Conforming Earth to Heaven, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Neil Somerville, Your Chinese Horoscope for Each and Every Year, Harper Thomsons, 2017.

Ruth Q. Sun and Norma Sun, Asian Animal Zodiac, Tuttle Publishing, 2012.

Xiaochun Sun, "Crossing the Boundaries Between Heaven and Man: Astronomy in Ancient China," in Astronomy Across Cultures, ed. Helaine Selin and adv. ed. Sun Xiaochun: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

David Twicken, Five Element Chinese Astrology Made Easy, iUniverse, 2000.

Derek Walters, The Complete Guide to Chinese Astrology, Watkins Publishing, 2005.

Suzanne White, The New Chinese Astrology, Thomas Dunne Books, 2015.

Charles Alfred Speed Williams. Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs (2000), New York: Castle Books.

Shelly Wu, Chinese Astrology: Exploring the Eastern Zodiac, New Page Books, 2005.

Shelly Wu, The Definitive Book of Chinese Astrology, Weiser, 2010.

Zhongzian Wu, The 12 Chinese Animals: Create Harmony in your Daily Life through Ancient Chinese Wisdom, Singing Dragon Press, 2010.

Zhongzian Wu and Karin Taylor Wu, Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches: The Heart of Chinese Wisdome Traditions, Singing Dragon Press, 2016.

Master Pun-Yin, "Chinese Zodiac," https://www.punyin.com/feng-shui/chinese-zodiac/index.html

Ho-Peng Yoke, Chinese Mathematical Astrology: Reaching Out to the Stars, Routledge, 2003. This is the pre-eminent book on the mathematical science of Asian lunar horoscope calculations. It is downloadable at http://www.ebook3000.com/Chinese-Mathematical-Astrology--Reaching-out-for-the-stars--Needham-Research-Institute-Series-_130932.html

For more on the Year of the Pig for 2019,general popular websites:

China Travel Guide, "Year of the Pig," https://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/social_customs/zodiac/pig.htm

ChineseNewYear.Net, "Chinese Zodiac -- Year of the Pig," https://chinesenewyear.net/zodiac/pig/

Chinese Zodiac.com, "Chinese Zodiac -- Pig,"  http://www.chinesezodiac.com/pig.php

The Chinese Zodiac, "Chinese Horoscope 2019 -- Year of the Earth Pig," https://www.thechinesezodiac.org/astrology/chinese-horoscope-2019-year-of-the-earth-pig/

For general popular websites on Asian Astrology and the Zodiac, please see:

China Voc.com "Zodiac" http://www.chinavoc.com/zodiac/index.asp

Chinese Fortune Calendar http://www.chinesefortunecalendar.com/5EBasic.htm

Chinese Horoscope-e.com, "Basic Chinese Horoscope," http://chinesehoroscop-e.com/index.html

Malaysia Site, "Chinese New Year,"  http://www.malaysiasite.nl/newyear.htm

Online Chinese Astrology http://www.onlinechineseastrology.com/

Topmarks Education, "Zodiac Story, Chinese New Year."  http://www.topmarks.co.uk/ChineseNewYear/ZodiacStory.aspx

"Your Chinese Astrology": https://www.yourchineseastrology.com/

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