Welcome to the David Victor Vector Blog

Welcome to the David Victor Vector blog. This is blog that covers religious observances around the world international affairs and global business. This blog describes religious holidays for most major religions as well as raising issues dealing with globalization, international business ethics, cross-cultural business communication and political events affecting business in an integrated world economy. I look forward your discussion and commentary on these articles and subjects. Enjoy!

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

FALL 2014 RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS

For several years now, I have posted as a reference overviews for many of the religious observances for Bahai'ism, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, neo-Paganism, Sikhism and Wicca. This is intended to allow those teaching or otherwise following a semester academic calendar to  accommodate students, faculty and staff who wish to observe them.

As September approaches again, we are now coming upon the start of the cycle of holidays once more. For many of these holidays (those from religions that follow calendars that differ from the Gregorian calendar), the dates in the secular year will differ but the main content of the posts should not. 

To that end, I would like to give the dates for the holidays in the next few months paralleling the Fall semester in most US universities (I am, after all, a professor in the United States).

I have noted only holidays to which I have already written a post. These are those holidays that I would argue are the most important holidays within their religion. Admittedly, there are others which may be of strong importance to those who observe them. Thus, I have not included, for example,  the Christian holiday of Advent Sunday on December 1. This does not, however, mean that such holidays are unimportant to those who wish to observe them, which should be kept in mind for religious accommodation purposes.

Similarly, I have left out some holidays that are regionally of importance within a religion but not of such significance beyond the regional context..  For example, I have left out the Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe (December 12) which is primarily observed among Mexican Catholics. Likewise excluded is Onam (this year on September 7) which is primarily observed among Hindus from Kerala state in India.

Note also that observance varies according to practice. For example, Reform and Reconstructionist Jews may observe a holiday for one day that Orthodox and Conservative Jews observe for two days. Some streams of Hinduism may observe Diwali for five full days, while others may do so for one, two or three days. While all Muslims recognize Ashurah as a holiday, it holds much greater significance in Shi'a tradition than in most other branches of Islam. Because of this, two people of the same faith may observe the same holiday for different lengths. These are explained for each holiday in the connected blog post. The main point here, though, is that we should recognize such differences in practice as legitimate.

FALL 2014 RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS

The list below gives the date for 2014, the name of the holiday, the main religion observing the holiday and the previous David Victor Vector post on that holiday.While the dates on the links may be from an earlier year, most of these are regularly updated, and all are corrected for the date when it changes.


September 24 sunset through September 26 sunset
Rosh HaShanah
Judaism


September 23
Autumnal Equinox/Mabon
Wicca, Neo-Paganism, Neo-Druidism

September 30-October 4
Durga Puja
Hinduism
http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2011/10/durga-puja.html



October 3 sunset through October 4 sunset
Yom Kippur/Day of Atonement


October 4 sunset through October 5 sunset (depending on the sighting of the moon)
Eid al-Adha/Festival of the Sacrifice
Islam

October 8 sunset through October 15 sunset
Sukkot/Festival of Booths/Festival of Tabernacles 
Judaism
            http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2011/10/sukkot-hoshanah-rabah-shemini-atzeret.html


October 16 sunset through October 17 sunset
Shemini Atzeret
Judaism

October 17 sunset through October 18 sunset
Simchat Torah
Judaism


October 20
Birth of the Bab
Bahai’ism

October 23-27
Devali
Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism

October 31 sunset through November 1 Samhain
Wicca, Neo-Paganism, Neo-Druidism
November 1
  All Saints Day

November 1
Reformation Day
Lutheranism, some Protestant sects
November 2
All Souls Day/Día de los Muertos
Roman Catholicism
http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2011/10/samhain-all-saints-day-dia-de-los.html


November 3 sunset through November 4 sunset (depending on the sighting of the moon)
Ashura
Islam, especially Shi’a
              http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2012/11/ashura-2012.html

November 12
Birthday of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahai'ism
http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2011/11/birthday-of-bahaullah.html


December 8  
Bodhi Day
Buddhism


December 16 sunset through Dercember 24 sunset
Chanukah

December 21
Yule/Winter Solstice
Wicca, Neo-Paganism, Neo-Druidism
http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2012/12/yule.html


December 25
Christmas
Western Christian faiths (Roman Catholicism, Protestantism)
 http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2011/12/christmas-day.html


A FEW CLOSING REMARKS

Before I go on, I should note that all holidays in Islam begin with the actual sighting of the moon. Therefore, the dates given for Eid al-Adha and Ashura are the likely dates for the holiday depending on the sighting conditions. Some debate exists regarding where the moon sighting should occur (e.g., locally or in Mecca). This may also cause observance to fall on a day before or after that indicated in this list. The date given here does not intend to suggest that one or the other interpretation is correct; this date is merely intended to be information for the date most widely observed in North America.

In all likelihood, I have overlooked a holiday or observance. Please feel free to share this with me.

While the links to many of the holidays above were posted in earlier years, they are regularly updated as the holiday approaches for this year. The dates in this post are (to the best of my knowledge) correct for 2014.

Finally, I would like to ask you to spread the word about this blog. If you are not formally a follower, please do add your name to the list through your Google, Twitter, AIM, Netlog or Yahoo account.


Thanks so much!

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Art Deco Architects Outside North America : A Few of the Key Figures


Art Deco, though born in France, is sometimes mistakenly seen as a US and Canadian movement. While it is true that it was in North America that Art Deco architecture found its greatest and most prolific flowering, many of the greatest Art Deco buildings were built elsewhere.

This blog attempts to point out some (by no means all) of the major Art Deco architects outside North America. This is an eclectic list, representing my own (openly amateur) appreciation. This is by no means a comprehensive overview. For a fuller (though still incomplete) list of Art Deco architecture outside the United States and Canada, please see my post on the subject at http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2014/07/art-deco-outside-north-america.html

There is a counterpart for US and Canadian Art Deco buildings at

http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2014/07/notable-art-deco-architectural.html

French architects

Art Deco may take its name from the French but France, the birthplace of the movement, a has several major contributing architects to the movement.

René Levavasseur was one of the earliest French architects of note. His buildings were primarily
constructed in the port of Cherbourg which is where his Trans-Atlantic Station, Atlantic Hotel and Grand Magasins Ratti stand. His Trans-Atlantic Station (Gare Transatlantique) of 1925 was well-kn own in the United States where the influence of its design may arguably be seen.
René Levavasseur's Trans-Atlantic Station, Cherbourg

Louis Castel and Jacques Droz's
Church of Sainte Jeanne d'Arc, Nice
Louis Castel and Jacques Droz collaborated on the Church of Sainte Jeanne d'Arc in Nice with its eight elliptical domes made of (what was at the time of its construction in 1932-34) the innovative material of reinforced concrete. The Church of Sainte Jeanne d'Arc was controversial not only when it was first built but even today in Nice -- locals seem either to hate or love the building, known by the nickname "la Meringue" due to its foamy white color and its domes that some suggest look likes dollops of the dessert on a plate.

Albert Laprade was one of the most important architects of the era. He is most famous for his Villa Magdalena at Bénodet in Brittany and for his collaboration with Alfred Janniot on Paris' Palais de la Porte Dorée (now the Museum of Immigration. Laprade also was the architect behind several industrial projects including the Génissiat Dam, Injoux-Génissiat in the Rhône-Alpes, and the EDF Central Hydroelectric Plant at Bâthie (also in the Rhone-Alpes)

Auguste Bluysen was one of the more prolific Art Deco architects in France. He designed several casinos including the Casino du Lac at Bagnole-de-l'Orne amd tje Casino de Vittel. He was also was the architect behind several notable theaters including Paris' Grand Rex Cinema, Paris' Théâtre de la Michodière  and La Normandy Cinema (after it burned down as was rebuilt in 1927) at Touquet-Paris-Plage in the Pas de Calais.
Auguste Blusen's Casino de Vittel

Other notable French Art Deco architects include Léon Baille (best known for his Belvédère du Rayon Vert in Cerbère), the Russian-born Charlotte Perriand (one of the few women architects of the era, known for her interior design primarily but also for her buildings such as the innovative apartments on Rue Casimir Pinel Apartments in Neuilly-sur Seine). Max Sainsaulieu is the architect who designed the Carnegie Library at Reims and Contréxeville Station in the the Vosges department.

Three more of France's most important Art Deco architects are better known for their work in Brazil than in France.

Brazilian architects

Brazil was the home of some of the most important Art Deco architects outside of North America. That said, two of Brazil's most iconic Art Deco works are the product of Frenchmen.

Biarritz Building, Rio de Janeiro
Two French architects-- Auguste Rendu and Henri Paul Pierre Sajous-- created one of Latin America's best-known Art Deco buildings: the Biarritz Building in Rio de Janeiro.

Christ the Redeemer
Rio de Janeiro

Another Frenchman -- the Polish French sculptor Paul Landowski -- was responsible for another Brazilian Art Deco icon: the Christ the Redeemer statue overlooking Rio. Landowski worked with Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa on the largest Art Deco statue in the world.

Plinio Botelho do Aramal's
Bank of São Paulo Building

Brazil itself had several important contributors to the Art Deco movement. Gilson Gladstone Navarro introduced the Marajoara ancient cuture into Casa Marajoara creating the Marajoara Deco style.

Other major Brazilian Art Deco architects include Plínio Botelho do Amaral was the architect behind the Bank of São Paulo (today the Altino Arantes Building), for decades that cities tallest building. Plinio Botelho do Amaral also collaborated with (the future modernist architect Alfonso Eduardo Reidy to create Rio's Fórum Ministro Arnaldo Süssekind skyscraper. Raphael Galvão (another future modernist) designed Rio's Roxy Theater as well as the Casa Cavé and Cine Ipanema. Eduardo Pederneiras and Ernesto G. Fontes on Rio's Paysandú Hotel.

Rino Levi's Porchat Building, São Paulo
Rino Levi in his early works contributed several buildings to the Art Deco movement (although he would later become among the most preeminent modernists). Among Levi's most notable Art Deco works are São Paulo's Instituto Sedes Sapientiae, Guarani Building, Higienopolis Building, Niccolau Schlisser Building, Porchat Building and Cine Ipiranga. Levi also was among the first to bring Art Deco further north with his Ufo-Palacio Cinema and Cine Arte-Palacio both in Recife.

Other major Brazilian architects of Rio's Carioca Art Deco era include Arnaldo Gladosch (Itahy Building), Carlos Porto and Caio Moacyr (Petronio Building), Mario Santos Maia (Regional Labor Court) and  Leopoldo Queiroz (Copacobana's Brasil Building).


Uruguayan architects

Montevideo is one of the Art Deco capitals of the world. A confluence of factors met in the 1920's. Uruguay's 100th anniversary as a nation in 1925 came just as Art Deco made its appearance. This was also a time of considerable prosperity for the country. Uruguay wanted also to show its modernity and relatively greater economic development than some of its neighbors, and this was symbolized by the Art Deco Movement.  As Montevideo began to expand in size, it erected buildings to show its wealth and modernity as well as its national pride on its centennial. The result is a collection of Art Deco unrivaled in Latin America.

 Juan María Aubriot and Ricardo Valabrega's
Palacio Lapido, Montevideo
The key architects involved in the Art Deco outpouring are largely from Uruguay itself, as befits a nationalist pride on its centennial.  Mauricio Cravotto was the architect behind both the Hotel Rambla and the Montevideo City Hall. Jorge Herrán was the architect behind the Montevideo Yacht Club and the Customs Building (Dirección de Aduanas).  Rafael Ruano was responsible for such prominent buildings as the Edificio Proamar and the Cine Trocadero.  Both the Montevideo Clinical Hospital and the Instituti de Higiene were the work of Carlos Surraco. Edmundo Gonzala Vázquez Barriére and Radael Ruano (the latter actually a Costa Rican rather than from Uruguay originally) worked together to create the Palacio Diaz. Alberto Isola and Guillermo Armas worked together to create the iconic Palacio Rinaldi. Another famous Art Deco building -- the Palacio Lapido -- was the result of Juan María Aubriot and Ricardo Valabrega. Jorge Harran was the architect of the Comando General de la Armada Building, while the epnonymous Goyret Building was the work of Luis Aniceto Goyret. Most of these prominent Uruguyan architects were responsible for other buildings besides these prominent one. Moreover, there are many other works throughout Montevideo in the Art Deco style, of which this is just a list of some of the most notable examples.

UK architects

Scotland

Scotland's Thomas Smith Tait designed St. Andrew's House (the seat of Scotland's government) as well as the pylons of Australia's iconic Sydney Harbour Bridge. Other Tait works include Fleet Street's Daily Telegraph Building  and Selfridge's Department Store both in London as well as the eponymous Tait Tower in Bellahouston Park, Glasgow.

Archibald Leitch's Arsenal Stadium, London
in its original form
Scotland's Archibald Leitch was famous as the designer of British football stadiums, most in the Art Deco style. These include Goodison Park of Everton F.C. in Walton, Crystal Palace F.C.'s Selhurst Park in South Norwood, and his masterpiece of Arsenal Stadium which was home of Highbury North London's Arsenal F.C. until 2006.  While some of Arsenal Stadium remains evident, the historic building was repurposed and largely remade as a housing development in that same year.


England

English Art Deco architects include England's premier cinema designer George Coles. Marcus Evelyn Collins and Owen Hyman Collins were the architects behind the Egyptian Deco masterpiece of the Carreras Cigarette Factory in London. The building is often cited as the highpoint of the Egyptian Revival Art Deco movement.

M. E. Collins and O. H. Collin's
Carreras Cigarette Factory, London
Highpoint of Egyptian Revival Deco
Sunlight HouseManchester
Another English architect of importance was Joseph Sunlight. Sunlight is known both as the architect of the eponymous Sunlight House in Manchester, but also as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Shrewsbury.

Thomas Cecil Howitt's career spanned much of the 20th Century, with buildings covering a broad range of architectural styles. In the 1920's and 1930's, Howitt created many Art Deco landmarks, including Birmingham's Baskerville House as well as its Municipal Savings Bank (Broad Street Head Office), produced a series of Art Deco movie houses for Odeon Cinemas at Weston-super-Mare and Bridgwater both in Somerset, at Warley in the West Midlands and at Clacton in Essex. Howitt was also the architect behind one of the most important examples of Art Deco in Wales, the Newport Civic Centre.


Wales

Wales has several important Art Deco buildings, but most are the product not of Welshmen but of English architects. As mentioned above, Thomas Cecil Howitt was the architect behind the Newport Civic Centre.
Sir Percy Edward Thomas'
Swansea Guilhall features
Sveyn Forkbeard's portrait 

Wales' most important Art Deco architect, Sir Percy Edward Thomas, was actually an Englishman too. Although born in South Shields in Tyneside, Thomas can nonetheless claim more Welsh connection as his family moved from England to Cardiff as a child. Thomas created the Guildhall at Swansea, arguably the most important Art Deco building in Wales. The Guildhall is an example of Greek Deco (or "stripped Classical") design. It is, however, the Guildhall's clock tower that is justifiably most famous. Possibly the only example of what one could call "Viking Deco," the 48-meter-high clock tower at one part echoes the features of a Viking longboat, and carries an Art Deco bas relief of Sweyn Forkbeard, the founder of what would become Swansea who became the first of the Danish Viking Kings of Britain in 1013. Thomas was also the architect behind the Art Deco Cardiff Central Rail Station. and the Welsh Temple of Peace and Health.

Finally, Sir Bertram Williams-Ellis is the only truly Welsh architect of major note, although ironically he too was born in Northamptonshire.  William-Ellis is best known for his Portmeirion, the recreation of an Italian village in North Wales that is anything but Art Deco. That said, he is also the architect behind the Morannedd Cafe in Cricceth, an intentionally Art Deco building built, however, in 1954 as a tribute to Art Deco well after the Art Deco movement had ended in the UK. That said, Williams-Ellis did design several Art Deco buildings during the actual movement itself, such as the White House in Llandudno in North Wales.

Malaysia
Arthur Oakley Coltman's
Market Square Clock Tower
 Kuala Lumpur

Virtually all of Kuala Lumpur's extensive Art Deco architecture has its origins with one man: English architect Arthur Oakley Coltman. Coltman brought Art Deco to Malaysia, then called Malaya, a colony of the British Empire. Coltman produced a long list of major works including Kuala Lumpur's iconic Market Square Clock Tower. Other works of Coltman's in Kuala Lumpur include the Oriental Building, the Bagunan Lee Rubber Building (Nan Yi Building), the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Odeon Theatre, the Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC) Building, and the Anglo-Oriental Building (now known as Wisma Ekran). 


New Zealand

Napier, New Zealand is one of the main centers of Art Deco architecture in the world, and for an unusual twist of fate.  Napier was struck by a devastating earthquake in 1931. Because of its near total destruction, New Zealand's architect converged on the city and brought Art Deco there along with them. New Zealand's premier Art Deco architects were Louis Hay and E. A. Williams.

Louis Hay's Central Fire Station
Napier, New Zealand
now the Deco Centre of Napier
Louis Hay's works in Napier include Halsbury Chambers, Hawkes Bay Museum, the National Tobacco Company Building, Anderson & Hansen Motors, the Hildebrandt Building, Parkers Chambers, the Abbots Building and the AMP Building (now home to the New Zealand Wine Center).  Hay's Napier Central Fire Station has even been converted into the city's Deco Centre, for preserving its rich Art Deco architectural heritage.

E. A. William's Masson HouseNapier, New Zealand
Just as prolific to the Napier Art Deco reconstruction as Louis Hay was New Zealand's E. A. Williams. Some of his major architectural works in Napier include the Daily Telegraph Building, Daslgety's Building, the Scinde Building, Harston's Music Shop, Masson House, Hawkes Bay Chambers, the Fenwick Building, the Crown Hotel and the Criterion Hotel.

J. T. Watson'sLoo Kee & Co. Building, Napier
Other Art Deco architects from New Zealand also contributed to the Napier Art Deco rebuilding. These include J. T. Mair (designer of the Napier Post Office Building and its Telegraph Exchange), H. Alfred Smith (architect of the Kidsons Building and Smith & Chambers Trust Building), J. T. Watson (architect of the Napier Municipal Theatre, Thackeray House and the Loo Kee & Company Building) and and Edmund Anscombe (creator of the New Zealand Shipping Company Building and the Union Hotel).

Australia
Charles Bruce Dellit's
ANZAC War Memorial, Sydney

Charle Bruce Dellit is the architect behind the ANZAC War Memorial, one of the best-known Art Deco monuments in the world. Dellitt was also the architect behind several other Art Deco buildings including the Kinselas Hotel and Kinselas Chapel in Darlington, and the Randwick Ritz in Randwick.

The Sydney Harbour Bridge is the best-known Art Deco bridge
outside the United States. The iconic structure was primarily designed by John J. C. Bradfield, who was an engineer not an architect.. Bradfield was also the designer of the Art Deco Circular Quay Railway Station, located just beside the bridge.



John J. C. Bradfield's Sydney Harbour Bridge
Australia's master theater architect of the Art Deco era was Henry Eli White. White designed over 130
Henry Eli White's State Theatre, Sydney
theatres in Australia and New Zealand. His State Theatre in Sydney is generally considered the apex of Art Deco Theatre design in Australia. Other theaters designed by White include the Capitol and St. James theaters (both in Sydney), the Majestic in Newtown, and the Tivoli in Brisbane. White also designed many theatres in New Zealand, such as the St. James Theatre in Wellington.


The architects E. H. Henderson and Cuthbert Claude Mortier Whitley produced several important Art Deco buildings in Canberra. E.H. Henderson was the architect behind the Manuka Swimming Pool and Canberra House. Cuthbert Claude Mortier Whitley was the architect behind the Canberra's Patent Office, Ainslee Primary School and Canberra High School (in the suburb of Acton).






Dave Pratt'sAmbassador Hotel, Mackay


Mackay, Queensland became the center of what has been called the Queensland Deco style, and is home to over 25 important Art Deco buildings.  A major fire coupled with a population explosion and economic boom resulted in one of the greatest Art Deco outputs worldwide. Two architects were largely responsible for most of these Mackay's Art Deco buildings.  Harold V. M. Brown and Edwin R. Orchard collaborated on over half (13) of the cities Art Deco masterpieces, including Chaseley House, Holy Trinity Parish Hall, the Belmore Arms, the Metropolitan Hotel, Hotel Mackay (now the Lucky Aussie Hotel) and the Pioneer Shire Office Building. That said, perhaps the most iconic Art Deco building in Mackay is the Ambassador Hotel designed by the builder Dave Pratt.
Chris Marsh's
Hindmarsh Town Hall, Adelaide

Chris Marsh was the architect behind many of the Art Deco building is South Australia. These include the renovation of the , the Capri Theatre in Goodwood, the Brighton Council Municipal Offices, the Greenways Residence in Prospect, and the masterful Hindmarsh Town Hall in Adelaide



Hungary

Béla Jánszky and Tibor Szivessy's
Uranaia Nemzeti Cinema, Budapest
 In Hungary, Art Deco found resistance as Hungarians clung to the Art Nouveau of the now-collapsed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The irony of clinging to Art Nouveau (the NEW art) as a way of holding on to the old is noteworthy. That said, even in this atmosphere, Art Deco surfaced in the work of Béla Jánszky  and Tibor Szivessy. The two collaborated on a number of Art Deco buildings in Budapest including the Puskin Cinema, the Urania Nemzeti Cinema, the 82 Radnóti Miklós Street Building and the Kossuth Lajos Secondary School.Other Hungarian Art Deco architects include Béla  Hofstätter and Ferenc Domány who collaborated on Budapest's Odeon Lloyd Egyptian Theatre, and Lajos Kozma who designed the Art Deco Kner-Villa.

Another Hungarian architect, László Hudec, was responsible for many Art Deco buildings but not Hungary but in Shanghai. Hudec's works in Shanghai includes the Park Hotel, Paulun Hospital, the Wukang Building (formerly Normandie Apartments) among others.

The Netherlands

Tuchinski Theater,  Amsterdam
The most famous Art Deco building in the Netherlands is Amsterdam's Tuschinski Theater, among the most beautiful theaters in the world. The architectural genius behind the the building was Hijman Louis de Jong whose life was sadly cut short when he and the man who commissioned it -- Abraham Icek Tuschinski -- were both murdered at Auschwitz by the Nazis for the crime of being Jews (the theater was temporarily renamed "the Tivoli" under the Germans to rid it of its "Jewish name").  When de Jong's Tuschinski Theater opened in 1921, it was one of the earliest examples of what would become Art Deco in its transition from what had been Art Nouveau.

Jan Duiker and Bernard Bijvoet's
Zonnestraal Sanatorium, Hilversum

The Dutch architect Jans Bilsen was the architect of Drie Hoefijzers Building in Breda. Also from the Netherlands was Jan Duiker who in his early work produced several Art Deco buildings before his own transition to the sparser New Objectivity (or Nieuwe Zakelijkheid) Movement which he helped to found. These include the Cineac Cinema in Amsterdam and, in collaboration with Bernard Bijvoet, the Zonnestraal Sanatorium in Hilversum.





Indonesia


Albert Aalbers' 
Savoy Homann Hotel
Bandung, Indonesia
Probably the most significant Art Deco contributions from the Dutch architects came not in the Netherlands itself but in Indonesia which until 1949 was a Dutch colony.

Dutch architects active in Indonesia included Albert Aalbers, Henri Maclaine-Pont and Wolff Schoemaker who together transformed Bandung, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) into an Art Deco highpoint. Aalbers' work in Baudung includes the Savoy Homann Hotel, DENIS Bank and (south of Bandung at Garut) the Grand Hotel Ngamplang.

Henri Maclaine-Pont (Dutch despite the rather un-Dutch name) was a major proponent of blending local culture into Art Deco architectural styles. This is exemplified by his so-called "Tropical Dutch" buildings on the campus of ITB (Bandung Technical Institute).  Maclaine-Pont intentionally used local materials and indigenous roof design mixed with the "ultimate bungalow" villas of the San Francisco architects Julia Morgan and Bernard Maybeck to created an Art Deco, Javanese bungalow for non-residential use.

Henri Maclaine-Pont's Tropical Dutch Art DecoWest Hall, Bandung Technical Institute
Wolff Schoemaker's Villa Isola
Schoemaker's Preanger Hotel is classic Art Deco while his Pasteur Institute of Indonesia begins to bring elements of local Javanese art and building design into a still primarily Art Deco building. It is with his masterwork --Villa Isola -- that Schoemaker fully combined Art Deco with Indonesian influences. This Indonesian influence is evident in many areas from small ornamentation to the roof design mimicking Sumatran local roofs. Most notably, the structure of the building and layout of the gardens contain both the the circular forms of Art Deco with an intentional echo of the ancient Candi temples in the eastern half of the island.  Schoemaker's Villa Isola is often noted as the premier example of Indonesian Art Deco.

The Philippines

Juan Nakpil's Quezon HallUniversity of the Philippines, Manila
Art Deco found fertile ground in which to grow in the Philippines. This is somewhat attributable to the fact that the Philippines was a territory of the United States until 1946. Unlike the case in Indonesia and Malaysia, though, Filipino Art Deco architecture was the output of Filipino architects, not imported architects from the colonial power.

Chief among these Filipino Art Deco architects was Juan Nakpil --  called the "Father of Philippine Architecture" --was the premier Filipino architect of the Art Deco period. His works include the Rizal Shrine at Intramuros, the Captain Pepe Building and Capital Theater in Manila, and his Art Deco masterpiece Quezon Hall Administration Building at the University of the Philippines.

Another major Filipino Art Deco architects is Juan Arellano, architect of the Cebu Provincial Capitol. Arellano also co-designed with fellow Filipino Art Deco architect Pablo Antonio Manila's National Museum of the Philippines (former Legislative Building).

Italy

Italy in the interwar years saw a mix of influences. None of this was openly called Art Deco, and some of it was clearly the opposite of the modernization characteristic of the movement; this is especially notable with the Novecento Italiano movement (the attempts to revive Italy's ancient architectural forms.   Art Deco in Italy, however, was evident in the "New Rationalism" or "Fascist Architecture" (depending on one's politics). The result are a mix of styles.

Marcello Piacentini's Teatro dell'Opera, Rome
Ulisse Stacchini's Milan Central Train Station represented something of an ornate version Art Deco, with some Novecento features. Giovanni Mengoni's Mercato Centrale in Florence has Art Deco coloring and design on a streamlined classical frame.

Ettore Sottsass, Sr.'s Meran Town Hall in the South Tyrol was held up as a paragon of Fascist
architecture when it was built, but would be called Art Deco were it to have been built somewhere else.  This is equally the case with Marcello Piacentini's Palazzo Piacentini in Reggio Calabria (now the Museo Nazionale della Magna Greci) or his facade for the Teatro dell'Opera in Roma.

Falling somewhere between Art Nouveau and Art Deco (and arguably more Art Deco) is the "Liberty Architecture" movement that was unique to Italy. The region of Versilia is a major centers of the style, with works especially of note by Afredo Belluomini such as the Bagno Balena,  Supercinema and Viareggio's Caffè Margherita.

Eritrea

In an odd twist of circumstances, Art Deco found one of its greatest flowerings in Asmara, the capital of what is now Eritrea and was at the time an Italian colony.


Giuseppe Pettazzi's
FIAT-Tagliero station
Asmara, Eritrea
Giuseppe Pettazzi was the leading architect responsible for converting the then-Italian colony of Eritrea into an Art Deco center. His FIAT-Tagliero in Asmara is a classic Art Deco work.   Pettazzi was the leading architect responsible for converting the then-Italian colony of Eritrea into an Art Deco center. His FIAT-Tagliero in Asmara is a classic Art Deco work.  

Several dozen Art Deco buildings rose out of the Eritrean desert, making it one of the most architecturally modern cities not only in Africa but anywhere in the world. Among the most notable of the architects involved were Bruno Salfani who built the Casa del Fascio (Fascist House), Roberto Cappellano who built the Cinema Roma,  Carlo Mazzetti who created the IRGA Building, Antonio Vitaliti who designed the Villa Grazia, and the Albergo Italia which was a collaboration of Johannes Primo and Carlo Iachino.

Other Countries

Other Art Deco architects from outside North America include Viktor Sulčič and Michel Polak. Argentina's Art Deco heritage is largely the work of the Slovenian-born Viktor Sulčič, creator of La Bombonera Stadium and the Abasto mall. Switzerland's Michel Polak was best known for his Europa Building in Brussels.

In Turkey, Art Deco represented the new Kemalist state as opposed to the old Ottoman Empire it replaced. As the new nation's capital moved from the old capital of Istanbul to the new one at Ankara, Art Deco architecture came with it. This is most visible in Şevki Balmumcu's Ankara Opera House and Şekip Akalinis' Central Rail Station in Ankara.

CONCLUSION


This has been a very small sampling of some of the architects who contributed to the Art Deco movement in architecture outside of North America. There are dozens of others who probably deserve to be mentioned. This is only one person's personal tastes reflected here. 

For an overview of some notable Art Deco buildings from XX countries around the world, please see my earlier post Art Deco Outside North America.

As always, I welcome your comments and input. 

IMAGE SOURCES




Christ the Redeemer statue, Rio de Janeiro, Photo by JC Salmon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_the_Redeemer_(statue)#mediaviewer/File:Cristo_Redentor_Rio_de_Janeiro_4.jpg

Plinio Botelho do Aramal's Bank of São Paulo Building, photo by Filipe Mostarda: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altino_Arantes_Building#mediaviewer/File:Banespa_(By_Felipe_Mostarda).JPG

Rino Levi's Porchat Building, São Paulo: http://armazemperisc.blogspot.com/2012/06/nem-o-melhor-nem-o-pior.html

Juan María Aubriot and Ricardo Valabrega's Palacio Lapido, Montevideo, photo by Federico Corral: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palacio_Lapido#mediaviewer/Archivo:Palacio_Lapido.jpg

Arsenal Stadium, London: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arsenal_Stadium_Highbury_east_facade.jpg

Sweyn Forkbeard's portrait, Swansea Guildhall, photo by L. M. Perry: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guildhall,_Swansea#mediaviewer/File:Sweyn.jpg

Carreras Cigarette Factory, London, photo by M@ggie on Panoramio: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/55475223.jpg

Sunlight House, Manchester: https://www.wantspacegotspace.co.uk/uploads/users/365/files/02_May_2012/NORTH/Sunlight_House.jpg

Market Square Clock Tower, Kuala Lumpur:  http://blog.audioguidemalaysia.com/page/11/

Charles Bruce Dellit's ANZAC War Memorial, photo by Hpeterswald: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANZAC_War_Memorial#mediaviewer/File:ANZAC_War_Memorial.jpg

John J. C. Bradfield's Sydney Harbour Bridge, photo by JJ Harrison: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Harbour_Bridge#mediaviewer/File:Sydney_Harbour_Bridge_from_Circular_Quay.jpg

Dave Pratt's Ambassador Hotel, Mackay: http://www.busaroundglobe.com/globe/country/australia_globe/au-41_en.htm

Canberra House: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-09-23/parliament-house-canberra/2351368

Chris Marsh's Hindmarsh Town Hall, Adelaide: https://c2.staticflickr.com/2/1325/1317888890_00d6839bc8_z.jpg

Louis Hay's Deco Centre, Napier, New Zealand: http://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=49

E. A. Williams' Masson House, Napier New Zealand:vhttp://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=90

J. T. Watson's Loo Kee & Co. Building, Napier: http://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=86

Béla Jánszky and Tibor Szivessy's Uranaia Nemzeti Cinema, Budapest: http://lakjonjol.hu/cikk/meleg-burkolas/299-a-mozgokep-legszebb-palotai#

Tuchinski Theater, Photo by Amsterdam Municipal Department for the Preservation and Restoration of Historic Buildings and Sites (bMA): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Haltusch.jpg

Jan Duiker and Bernard Bijvoet's Zonnestraal Sanatorium, Hilversum, photo by Jannes Linders: http://www.wmf.org/node/2088

Albert Aalbers' Savoy Homann Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia, photo by Jagawana: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Aalbers#mediaviewer/File:Savoy_Homann_Hotel_-_Oceanwave.jpg

Henri Maclaine-Pont's Tropical Dutch West Hall, Bandung Technical Institute, Photograph by Christian Wopperer: http://thisflyingdutchman.blogspot.com/2012/12/bandung-is-like-paris-err-sorta.html

Wolff Schoemaker's Villa Isola, Bandung, photo by Bandung Traveler: http://bandungtraveler.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/VILLA-ISOLA.jpg