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Welcome to the David Victor Vector blog. This is blog that covers religious observances around the world international affairs and global business. This blog describes religious holidays for most major religions as well as raising issues dealing with globalization, international business ethics, cross-cultural business communication and political events affecting business in an integrated world economy. I look forward your discussion and commentary on these articles and subjects. Enjoy!

Monday, July 7, 2014

What IS Art Deco? A Little Background


As part of what now appears to be an ongoing set of posts on Art Deco, I wanted to share a bit about what Art Deco actually is.

This is a follow-up to my lists of notable Art Deco architecture. Just click the links highlighted here to see the lists for building in the United States and Canada as well as some of the most notable Art Deco buildings outside the United States.

The Source of the Term Art Deco


As mentioned in an earlier post, Art Deco took its name from a 1925 article by the French architect La Corbusier for the Exposition Internationale des Arts Déccoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in that same year.
Le Corbusier

Charles Watts' Masonic Temple,
El Dorado, Arkansas (1924)
Art Deco itself predates La Corbusier's naming of it, with origins as far back as the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris, with buildings that are in the Art Deco style in the first quarter of the 20th Century. These include Erich Mendolsohn's Einsteinturn (1921) in Potsdam and Mossehaus in Berlin (1923), Hijman Louis de Jong Tuschinski Theater (1921) in Amsterdam, Raymond Hood's American Radiator Building (1924) in New York, Claud Beelman's Culver Hotel (1924) in Culver City, California and Charles S. Watts' Masonic Temple (1924) in El Dorado, Arkansas.




The Problem With Terminology

Defining Art Deco is not an easy thing to do. Largely contributing to this is the fact that the proponents of Art Deco mostly did not use the name themselves. In fact, it really was not until the 1960's -- long after the era had ended -- that movement was uniformly known by the name Art Deco.

Art Deco architects called themselves by many names, but virtually none of those involved in the movement would themselves have called themselves "Art Deco"architects. This is because Art Deco was accepted as a term only after the movement had ended,

Instead, the proponents of Art Deco called themselves by a confusing mix of names. These can be seen as sub-movements or developments of Art Deco now... but in their day, these distinctions were often unrecognized by those who practiced them.

So what were these various names?


A Movement With Many Names

Some considered themselves an advanced form of the early Art Nouveau movement, a point that still confuses enthusiasts today. Others saw themselves as part of the Jugenstil Movement (which in French is usually translated as "Art Nouveau" but for many German and Dutch architects represented what was becoming Art Deco. Some considered themselves Functionalists (those following Louis Sullivan's precept that "form follows function"). Others such as Bruno Paul called themselves Werkbund architects (for a working union of several German and Belgian architects).

Zigzag Moderne
Sinclair Building, Fort Worth
Some architects called themselves Zigzag Moderne (due to the zigzags and other geometric shapes in their work).   Other architects, influenced by the new archaeological discoveries that they attempted to Egyptian Revival, Mayan Revival or Aztec Revival architects, depending on which of the influences on which they drew.  Still others attempted to draw on the heritage of the indigenous cultures of the countries in which they worked. This is the case, for example, with Henri Maclaine-Pont in Indonesia with his Tropical Dutch style or  Gilson Gladstone Navarro with the Marajoara Revival in Brazil.


Other Art Deco architects thought of themselves as practitioners of Classic Moderne which became "classic modernists" or simply "modernists." This is because the architects involved in producing Art Deco considered themselves as avant-garde and ultra-modern. Thus several Art Deco architects and artists therefore called themselves "modernists" to describe themselves.

This was also the case with those involved in the Streamline Moderne movement. Many architects in the Streamline Moderne sub-movement within Art Deco. Many of the Streamline Moderne architects openly disliked the work of many of their earlier Art Deco predecessors for being too elaborate.

Nevertheless, these same architects are usually not considered "modernists" today but are still generally seen as part of the Art Deco movement by current estimation. Some argument exists on this but on the whole, the reason for this is that Modernism would eventually become its own movement (itself ill-defined). Modernism is evident in the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe or Oscar Niemeyer, none of whom could be considered Art Deco (Streamline Moderne or not). Unlike Art Deco, modernist architects emphasized common principles: form follows function and that materials should come from the sites of the structures (that is, architecture as an organic expression).

Some Art Deco Architects Actually Were Later Modernists

Thus the issue of WHO actually was confused by the architects own self-definition. Those Art Deco architects who called themselves modernist in their own self-definition mostly were not practitioners of what would be seen as modernist today.  Contributing further to this terminological confusion is that many of the greatest contributors to Art Deco would actually evolve into what we do call "modernism" today.
Mendelsohn's Einsteinturm, Potsdam
 
Mendelsohn's Mossehaus, Berlin
For example, Germany's Erich Mendelsohn is generally considered the father of Streamline Moderrne with his creation of the Einstein Tower in Potsdam (1921) and the Mossehaus in Berlin (1923). Yet many modernists considered his later work -- especially Tel Aviv's Weizmann Villa built in 1937 to be among the first  modernist building (if not actually the first modernist building). In short, Mendelsohn -- who called himself a member of neither -- was both a major innovator and even creator of both the Art Deco and Modernist movements.
Mendelsohn's Weizmann Villa, Tel Aviv
No Longer Art Deco

Similarly, Brazil's premier Art Deco architect Rino Levi would later be a major contributor to the modernist movement later in his career. The same was true for his fellow countryman Raphael Galvão. The German-born Jewish architect Bruno Taut is considered a true transition architect with elements of Art Deco's use of color and geometric shape margin into modernism's emphasis on openness and what Taut called "crystal building." Taut is particularly significant to the internationalization of both movements, though, because as a Jew he was forced to flee Germany and brought his architectural vision with him to Japan and then with great influence to Turkey. There are many other transitional figures as well... these are just a few examples.

So this begs the question, how should we define Art Deco architecture? I will try to give my own definition below.

Art Deco Hallmarks

Art Deco was a comprehensive form, governing style not just in architecture (my interest here) but also in furnishings, glasswork (notably lighting and stained glass windows), silverware and dishes, clothing, painting, graphic design and industrial design for cars, passenger ships, domestic machines and so forth.

In this post, I am only referring to Art Deco in architecture.

That said, despite a common name, the architecture shared a host of common features.


Linearity
Empire State Building, New York
Linearity: Art Deco employs a strong sense of well-defined lines and clean edges. The sharpness of the lines is classic in the works of Albert Kahn with buildings such as Detroit's Fisher Building or of William Lamb with buildings such as the Empire State Building in New York.

Chrysler Building's
Zigzag Moderne top
Bold geometric stylization: Art Deco buildings are often marked by repeating geometric designs, especially favoring sharply-angled patterns such as Greek meanders, chevrons, spheres, repeating rectangles and zigzags. In fact, there is a whole subset of the movement called Zigzag Moderne, with William Van Alen's Chrysler Building in New York arguably its most famous example.

Modern (for then) construction material and contrasting colors: Art Deco architecture introduced many materials rarely used in earlier buildings. These include stainless steel, aluminum and chrome for metal features and the use of plastic for decoration. One of the most notable examples of this is Syracuse, New York's Art Deco masterful Niagara-Mohawk Building.

Emphasis of new materials
Niagara-Mohawk Building, Syracuse
Illusion of Pillars: Art Deco buildings generally did not have functional pillars. Instead, many Art Deco buildings gave the illusion of pillars to create repeating patterns. That said, the long, parallel linear forms created by the faux-pillars enhanced the geometric patterns of the buildings.


Illusion of pillars
Far Eastern University, Manila
Stepped Forms
Fisher Building, Detroit
Stepped or Elongated Pyramid Building Forms:  
Stepped Forms
Kavanaugh Building, Buenos Aires
Art Deco building -- especially skyscrapers and towers -- favored stepped forms or elongated pyramid-like patterns.  These steps or pyramid sides, in turn, were intended to enhance the linear geometry of the buildings and to move one's eye upward along the face of the building. Prime examples of the stepped form is evident in such notable Art Deco buildings as New York's Empire State and Chrysler Buildings, in Detroit's Fisher Building, in Buenos Aires' Kavanaugh Building, and in Pittsburgh's Cathedral of Learning tower.

Stepped Forms
Cathedral of Learning, Pittsburgh


The stepped forms merge into a near pyramid in Tulsa's Boston Avenue Methodist Church.
Near Pyramid Steps
Boston Avenue Methodist Church, Tulsa

Full step pyramids are apparent in other buildings, such as the Boulder County Courthouse in Colorado (seemingly modeled on the Djoser Pyramid in Egypt)
Full Step Pyramid
Boulder County Courthouse



Contrasting Colors: Art Deco often used the "new" materials of shiny metals and plastics as a bold cold contrast to the stone exteriors. Large use of stained glass (in sunburst or geometric patterns) and inlay work are also common for contrast. Finally, bright pastel paint and plastic is often used for marked contrasting features. This contrast of colors is seen in Albert Anis' Berkely Shores Hotel in Miami Beach.
Berkeley Shores Hotel, Miami Beach

Egyptian Theatre
Park City, Utah
Marajoara Deco
Itahy Building Copacobana
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Ancient non-Western elements: Art Deco included elements normally absent in Western architecture (considered exotica at the time) such as ancient Mayan, Aztec, Assyrian, Marajoara and Egyptian influences. This can be seen in Stile O. Clements' over-the-top facade of the Mayan Theater in Los Angeles and Thomas W. Lamb's Egyptian Art Deco Pythian Temple in New York City.
Assyrian Columns,
Pythian Temple, New York
Mayan Theater, Los Angeles
Mayan Deco facade

Bas-relief panels: Bas-relief (or shallow-depth sculpture) is a common feature on paneling and other decorative items in much Art Deco. This is particularly apparent at doorways both up the sides and over the top of the main entrance.  Art Deco architects also frequently employed bas-relief panels beside windows and in decorative horizontal bands along the walls. 
Bas-relief at main entrance of the Bower Bay Water Pollution Control Plant


Floor Tile Inlay
Pierce-Arrow Showroom
Buffalo, New York
Inlay Work: Many Art Deco buildings use inlay work, decorative tiling and mosaics just as their Art
Deco furniture counterparts do. Art Deco buildings often have such inlays on floors, ceilings, elevator doors and details on the external building facades.

Floor Inlay
Eastern Columbia Building, Los Angeles


Mural Work: Murals are a common component of the interior of many Art Deco buildings. The themes typically depict he machine age and advances in technology or the progress in history of the specific city or other location where they are located. Sometimes, the murals combine both themes, as with Winold Reiss' famous mosaic murals at Cincinnati's Union Terminal.


Winold Reiss Mosaic, Union Terminal, Cincinnati
By the way, I have an entire post devoted to Union Terminal (it was my first post on this blog regarding Art Deco). Please do take a look at this too at http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2013/01/cincinnatis-union-terminal-art-deco.html
This is my all-time favorite Art Deco building.

That said, there are many Art Deco buildings with murals. Another outstanding example can be found with Napier Waller's work on the external walls of  Melbourne's Newspaper House.
Napier Waller's MuralsNewspaper House, Melbourne


Set-back facade
Film Center Building
New York City
Stepped-out or set-back main facadeNot much to add to this... the main entranceways on Art Deco buildings are usually, well, stepped-out or set-back from the main building.
Stepped-out facade
Marlin Hotel, Miami Beach

There are certainly other features that might be added but this is at least my take on the main features... and I am, after all, just an amateur admirer of the Art Deco movement.






CONCLUSION

In closing, I just want to add that these are the comments of an amateur enthusiast. I do not intend this to be an authoritative exposition.  Instead, my hope is that you will join in my enthusiasm for Art Deco architecture. I hope too, perhaps, that I may have encourage you to want to look more on your own.

As always, I welcome your comments.


IMAGE SOURCES

1925  Exposition Internationale des Arts Déccoratifs et Industriels Modernes poster: http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/the-1925-paris-exhibition/

Le Corbusier: http://d.fastcompany.net/multisite_files/codesign/poster/2012/09/1670866-poster-1280-le-corbusier-color-big.jpg

Charles Watts' Masonic Temple, El Dorado, Arkansas, photo by Billy Hathorn: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonic_Temple_(El_Dorado,_Arkansas)#mediaviewer/File:Masonic_Temple,_El_Dorado,_AR_IMG_2634.JPG

Confused look clip art: http://images.clipartpanda.com/hospital-clipart-confused_mother___hospital__clip_art__illustration_by_rabid__rabbit-d77f9xb.png

Empire State Building, New York, Photo by David Shankbone: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_State_Building#mediaviewer/File:Empire_State_Building_by_David_Shankbone.jpg

Zigzag Moderne, Sinclair Building, Fort Worth, Photo by Jeff Stvan: https://www.flickr.com/photos/diorama_sky/3415844807/

Chrysler Building Zigzag Moderne top: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Chrysler_Building_detail.jpg/640px-Chrysler_Building_detail.jpg

Niagara-Mohawk Building: http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM41RM_Niagara_Mohawk_Building_Syracuse_New_York

Far Eastern University, Manila: http://jastinecandido.wordpress.com/2012/03/

Fisher Building, Detroit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisher_Building#mediaviewer/File:Fisher_Building_Detroit_crop.jpg

Kavanaugh Building, Buenos Aires: http://argentinatraveler.wordpress.com/page/8/

Cathedral of Learning, Pittsburgh, Photo by Englaterra: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?p=115502399

Boston Avenue Methodist Church, Tulsa: http://www.preservationnation.org/magazine/2008/july-august/tulsas.html

Boulder County Courthouse, Colorado: http://c1n.tv/boulderchannel1/a-county-land-use-office-to-help-with-rebuilding-regulations/boulder-county-courthouse/

Mendelsohn's Mossehaus, Berlin: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Mendelsohn#mediaviewer/File:Berlin,_Mitte,_Schuetzenstrasse,_Mosse-Zentrum_05.jpg

Mendelsohn's Einsteinturn, Potdsam: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Mendelsohn#mediaviewer/File:Einsteinturm_7443.jpg

Itahy Building Copacobana, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, photo by Celeste (Wing It Wisely Blog): http://wingingitwisely.wordpress.com/about/

Egyptian Theater, Park City, Own Photograph

Pythian Temple, New York, photo by Beyond My Ken: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythian_Temple_(New_York_City)#mediaviewer/File:The_Pythian_column_capitals.jpg

Mayan Theater, Los Angeles facade: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayan_Theater#mediaviewer/File:Facade,_Mayan_Theater,_Los_Angeles.jpg

Bowery Bay Water Pollution Control Plant bas-relief, photo by Dennis Puchol: https://denisepuchol.wordpress.com/page/2/

Floor Tile, Pierce-Arrow Showroom, Buffalo, New York, photo by Chuck LaChiusa: http://buffaloah.com/a/main/2421/int/source/21.html

Eastern Columbia Building, Los Angeles: http://www.glamamor.com/2012/03/out-about-art-deco-icon-eastern.html

Winold Reiss Mosaic, Union Terminal Cincinnati: Own photograph

Set-back facade Film Center Building, New York City: http://artdecobuildings.blogspot.com/2010/07/film-center-building-new-york-city.html

Stepped-out facade, Marlin Hotel, Miami Beach: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Marlin_Hotel_Art_Deco.jpg


Wednesday, July 2, 2014

Art Deco Outside North America



Art Deco was born in France in the 1920's. Even its name is French, coined by La Corbusier in his article 1925 Expos: Arts Déco for the Exposition Internationale des Arts Déccoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in that same year.

It therefore only makes sense that much of the world's Art Deco architectural masterworks should be found outside of North America. The real surprise probably should have been that, as my earlier post notes, the United States and Canada are by far the richest source of Art Deco buildings. For works in the United States and Canada, please see my post on that subject by clicking here.


For a summary of what Art Deco architecture is all about, please click on the following link to read my post "What IS Art Deco? A Little Background.


International Art Deco Architects

Art Deco may have been named by La Corbusier in 1925 in France, but its proponents were from across the globe. Moreover, Art Deco was a worldwide movement, as this list shows. As expected some of the most important works are in Europe.

That said, France, the birthplace of the movement, is not as rich a center of its architecture as many other nations in Europe. French Art Deco architects include Léon Baille (best known for his Belvédère du Rayon Vert in Cerbère), the Russian-born Charlotte Perriand (one of the few women architects of the era, known for the Barbara Hamilton House in Rabouillet and her innovative apartments on Rue Casimir Pinel Apartments in Neuilly-sur Seine), and Auguste Bluysen (best-known for his Casino du Lac at Bagnole-de-l'Orne).

Two other French architects-- Auguste Rendu and Henri Paul Pierre Sajous--  created one of Latin America's best-known Art Deco buildings: the Biarritz Building in Rio de Janeiro. Another Frenchman -- the Polish French sculptor Paul Landowski -- was responsible for another Brazilian Art Deco icon: the Christ the Redeemer statue overlooking Rio. Landowski worked with Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa on the largest Art Deco statue in the world.
Christ the Redeemer.
Rio de Janeiro


Plinio Botelho do Aramal's
Bank of São Paulo Building

Brazil itself had several important contributors to the Art Deco movement. Gilson Gladstone Navarro introduced the Marajoara ancient cuture into Casa Marajoara creating the Marajoara Deco style.

Other major Brazilian Art Deco architects include Plínio Botelho do Amaral was the architect behind the Bank of São Paulo (today the Altino Arantes Building), for decades that cities tallest building. Plinio Botelho do Amaral also collaborated with (the future modernist architect Alfonso Eduardo Reidy to create Rio's Fórum Ministro Arnaldo Süssekind skyscraper. Raphael Galvão (another future modernist) designed Rio's Roxy Theater as well as the Casa Cavé and Cine Ipanema. Eduardo Pederneiras and Ernesto G. Fontes on Rio's Paysandú Hotel.

Rino Levi's Porchat Building, São Paulo
Rino Levi in his early works contributed several buildings to the Art Deco movement (although he would later become among the most preeminent modernists). Among Levi's most notable Art Deco works are São Paulo's Instituto Sedes Sapientiae, Guarani Building, Higienopolis Building, Niccolau Schlisser Building, Porchat Building and Cine Ipiranga. Levi also was among the first to bring Art Deco further north with his Ufo-Palacio Cinema and Cine Arte-Palacio both in Recife.

Other major Brazilian architects of Rio's Carioca Art Deco era include Arnaldo Gladosch (Itahy Building), Carlos Porto and Caio Moacyr (Petronio Building), Mario Santos Maia (Regional Labor Court) and  Leopoldo Queiroz (Copacobana's Brasil Building).

Archibald Leitch's Arsenal Stadium, London
in its original form
Scotland's Archibald Leitch was famous as the designer of British football stadiums, most in the Art Deco style. These include Goodison Park of Everton F.C. in Walton, Crystal Palace F.C.'s Selhurst Park in South Norwood, and his masterpiece of Arsenal Stadium which was home of Highbury North London's Arsenal F.C. until 2006.  While some of Arsenal Stadium remains evident, the historic building was repurposed and largely remade as a housing development in that same year.

Other British Art Deco architects include England's premier cinema designer George Coles and Joseph Sunlight (the latter known both as the architect of the so-called Sunlight House in Manchester, but also as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Shrewsbury).

Scotland's Thomas Smith Tait designed St. Andrew's House (the seat of Scotland's government) as well as the pylons of Australia's iconic Sydney Harbour Bridge. Other Tait works include Fleet Street's Daily Telegraph Building  and Selfridge's Department Store both in London as well as the eponymous Tait Tower in Bellahouston Park, Glasgow.
Arthur Oakley Coltman's
Market Square Clock Tower, Kuala Lumpur

English architect Arthur Oakley Coltman brought Art Deco to Malaysia, then a colony of the British Empire. Coltman produced a long list of major works including Kuala Lumpur's iconic Market Square Clock Tower. Other works of Coltman's in Kuala Lumpur include the Oriental Building, the Lee Rubber Building (Nan Yi Building), the Odeon Theatre and the Anglo-Oriental Building. 



Louis Hay's Central Fire Station
Napier, New Zealand
now the Deco Centre of Napier
Napier, New Zealand is one of the main centers of Art Deco architecture in the world, and for an unusual twist of fate.  Napier was struck by a devastating earthquake in 1931. Because of its near total destruction, New Zealand's architect converged on the city and brought Art Deco there along with them.

New Zealand's premier Art Deco architects were Louis Hay and E. A. Williams.

Louis Hay's works in Napier include Halsbury Chambers, Hawkes Bay Museum, the National Tobacco Company Building, Anderson & Hansen Motors, the Hildebrandt Building, Parkers Chambers, the Abbots Building and the AMP Building (now home to the New Zealand Wine Center).  Hay's Napier Central Fire Station has even been converted into the city's Deco Centre, for preserving its rich Art Deco architectural heritage.

E. A. William's Masson House
Napier, New Zealand
Just as prolific to the Napier Art Deco reconstruction as Louis Hay was New Zealand's E. A. Williams. Some of his major architectural works in Napier include the Daily Telegraph Building, Daslgety's Building, the Scinde Building, Harston's Music Shop, Masson House, Hawkes Bay Chambers, the Fenwick Building, the Crown Hotel and the Criterion Hotel.

J. T. Watson's
Loo Kee & Co. Building, Napier
Other Art Deco architects from New Zealand also contributed to the Napier Art Deco rebuilding. These include J. T. Mair (designer of the Napier Post Office Building and its Telegraph Exchange), H. Alfred Smith (architect of the Kidsons Building and Smith &
Chambers Trust Building), J. T. Watson (architect of the Napier Municipal Theatre, Thackeray House and the Loo Kee & Company Building) and and Edmund Anscombe (creator of the New Zealand Shipping Company Building and the Union Hotel).

Béla Jánszky and Tibor Szivessy's
Uranaia Nemzeti Cinema, Budapest
 In Hungary, Art Deco found resistance as Hungarians clung to the Art Nouveau of the now-collapsed Austro-Hungarian Empire. The irony of clinging to Art Nouveau (the NEW art) as a way of holding on to the old is noteworthy. That said, even in this atmosphere, Art Deco surfaced in the work of Béla Jánszky  and Tibor Szivessy. The two collaborated on a number of Art Deco buildings in Budapest including the Puskin Cinema, the Urania Nemzeti Cinema, the 82 Radnóti Miklós Street Building and the Kossuth Lajos Secondary School.Other Hungarian Art Deco architects include Béla  Hofstätter and Ferenc Domány who collaborated on Budapest's Odeon Lloyd Egyptian Theatre, and Lajos Kozma who designed the Art Deco Kner-Villa.

Another Hungarian architect, László Hudec, was responsible for many Art Deco buildings but not Hungary but in Shanghai. Hudec's works in Shanghai includes the Park Hotel, Paulun Hospital, the Wukang Building (formerly Normandie Apartments) among others.

Tuchinski Theater, Amsterdam
The most famous Art Deco building in the Netherlands is Amsterdam's Tuschinski Theater, among the most beautiful theaters in the world. The architectural genius behind the the building was Hijman Louis de Jong whose life was sadly cut short when he and the man who commissioned it -- Abraham Icek Tuschinski -- were both murdered at Auschwitz by the Nazis for the crime of being Jews (the theater was temporarily renamed "the Tivoli" under the Germans to rid it of its "Jewish name").  When de Jong's Tuschinski Theater opened in 1921, it was one of the earliest examples of what would become Art Deco in its transition from what had been Art Nouveau.

The Dutch architect Jans Bilsen was the architect of Drie Hoefijzers Building in Breda. Also from the Netherlands was Jan Duiker who in his early work produced several Art Deco buildings before his own transition to the sparser New Objectivity (or Nieuwe Zakelijkheid) Movement which he helped
Jan Duiker and Bernard Bijvoet's
Zonnestraal Sanatorium, Hilversum

found. These include the Cineac Cinema in Amsterdam and, in collaboration with Bernard Bijvoet, the Zonnestraal Sanatorium in Hilversum. 

Albert Aalbers' Savoy Homann Hotel,
Bandung, Indonesia
Also from the Netherlands came Albert Aalbers, Henri Maclaine-Pont and Wolff Schoemaker who together transformed Bandung, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) into an Art Deco highpoint. Aalbers' work in Baudung includes the Savoy Homann Hotel, DENIS Bank and (south of Bandung at Garut) the Grand Hotel Ngamplang.

Henri Maclaine-Pont (Dutch despite the rather un-Dutch name) was a major proponent of blending local culture into Art Deco architectural styles. This is exemplified by his so-called "Tropical Dutch" buildings on the campus of ITB (Bandung Technical Institute).  Maclaine-Pont intentionally used local materials and indigenous roof design mixed with the "ultimate bungalow" villas of the San Francisco architects Julia Morgan and Bernard Maybeck to created an Art Deco, Javanese bungalow for non-residential use.

Henri Maclaine-Pont's Tropical Dutch Art Deco
West Hall, Bandung Technical Institute
Wolff Schoemaker's Villa Isola
Schoemaker's Preanger Hotel is classic Art Deco while his Pasteur Institute of Indonesia begins to bring elements of local Javanese art and building design into a still primarily Art Deco building. It is with his masterwork --Villa Isola -- that Schoemaker fully combined Art Deco with Indonesian influences. This Indonesian influence is evident in many areas from small ornamentation to the roof design mimicking Sumatran local roofs. Most notably, the structure of the building and layout of the gardens contain both the the circular forms of Art Deco with an intentional echo of the ancient Candi temples in the eastern half of the island.  Schoemaker's Villa Isola is often noted as the premier example of Indonesian Art Deco.


Juan Nakpil's Quezon Hall
University of the Philippines, Manila
Juan Nakpil --  called the "Father of Philippine Architecture" --was the premier Filipino architect of the Art Deco period. His works include the Rizal Shrine at Intramuros, the Captain Pepe Building and Capital Theater in Manila, and his Art Deco masterpiece Quezon Hall Administration Building at the University of the Philippines.

Another major Filipino Art Deco architects is Juan Arellano, architect of the Cebu Provincial Capitol. Arellano also co-designed with fellow Filipino Art Deco architect Pablo Antonio Manila's National Museum of the Philippines (former Legislative Building).

Other Art Deco architects from outside North America include Viktor Sulčič, Giuseppe Pettazzi, and Michel Polak. Argentina's Art Deco heritage is largely the work of the Slovenian-born Viktor Sulčič, creator of La
Giuseppe Pettazzi's
FIAT-Tagliero station
Asmara, Eritrea
Bombonera Stadium and the Abasto mall.  Pettazzi was the leading architect responsible for converting the then-Italian colony of Eritrea into an Art Deco center. His FIAT-Tagliero in Asmara is a classic Art Deco work.  Switzerland's Michel Polak was best known for his Europa Building in Brussels.


In Turkey, Art Deco represented the new Kemalist state as opposed to the old Ottoman Empire it replaced. As the new nation's capital moved from the old capital of Istanbul to the new one at Ankara, Art Deco architecture came with it. This is most visible in Şevki Balmumcu's Ankara Opera House and Şekip Akalinis' Central Rail Station in Ankara.

Moreover, many of the most important sites of Art Deco are neither in North America nor Europe, but rather in Asia and the Pacific. Australia, Indonesia and the Philippines are all major centers of Art Deco building. Perhaps the most out-of-the-way center of Art Deco work is in Eritrea, a result of the Italian heritage.

Shell-Mex Building, Buenos Aires
This post attempts to provide what are in my opinion (and that is the sole arbiter here, I am afraid), some of the most notable Art Deco architecture outside the United States (listed in alphabetic order by nation).

in Argentina
Abasto Shopping Complex, Buenos Aires
La Bombonera Soccer Stadium, Buenos Aires
Mariano Moreno Bus Terminal, Rosario
Methodist Temple, Buenos Aires
Shell-Mex Building, Buenos Aires

in Australia

-- in New South Wales
Anzac War Memorial, Sydney
Albury Hotel, Sydney
Australian Provincial Assurance Building, Sydney
AWA Building, Sydney
Berlei Building, Sydney
Burley Griffin Incinerator, Sydney
Charing Cross Hotel, Waverly
Chevra Kedisha Synagogue, Woollahra
Grace Building, Sydney
Holy Cross Church, Woollahra
Hotel Broadway, Sydney
Sydney Harbour Bridge
King George V Memorial Hospital, Camperdown
Kinselas Chapel, Darlington
Kinselas Hotel, Darlington
Metro Cinema at King's Cross, Sydney
Metro Theatre, Sydney
Peek Frean Biscuit Factory, Ashfield
Randwick Ritz, Randwick
Ritz Cinema, Sydney
Roxy Theatre, Leeton
State Theatre Building, Sydney
Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney
Wroxton Building, Sydney
Wychbury Apartments, Sydney

Mackay Post Office


-- in Queensland
Ambassador Hotel, Mackay
Aroneys House, Mackay
Australian Hotel, Mackay
Belmore Arms, Mackay
Chaseley House, Mackay
Empire Theatre, Toowoomba
Forgan Smith Building, University of Queensland, Brisbane
Holy Trinity Parish Hall, Mackay
Hotel Mackay, Mackay
Johnson Shire Council Hall, Innisfail
Mackay Post Office, Mackay
Mother of Good Counsel Church, Innisfail
Pioneer Shire Office, Mackay
Town Hall, Southport
Wide Bay Australia House, Mackay

-- in South Australia
Hindmarsh Town Hall
Gilbert Place Apartments, Adelaide
Hindmarsh Town Hall, Hindmarsh
Holdfast Bay Civic Centre, Holdfast Bay (Brighton)
Light Buildings, Adelaide
Port Adelaide Council Offices, Port Adelaide
Roxy Theatre, Everard Park, Adelaide
West Torrens District Council Offices, Adelaide

-- in Tasmania
Holyman House, Launceston
Star Theatre (St. Vincent de Paul Society), Invermay

Newspaper House, Melbourne
--in Victoria
Lyric House, Melbourne
Majorca Building, Melbourne
Manchester Unity Building Melbourne
Mandalay Flats, St. Kilda
Newspaper House, Melbourne
Palais Theatre, St. Kilda
Soldiers Memorial, Kangaroo Flats
T&G Building, Horsham
Young's Milk Bar, Melbourne



Edith Cowan Memorial, Perth

-- in  Western Australia
Astor Theatre, Mount Lawley
Beverley Town Hall, Beverley
Como Theatre (now Cygnet Theatre), Como
Edith Cowan Memorial, Perth
Gledden Building, Perth
King Edward Memorial Hospital, Subiaco
Luna Leederville (formerly New Oxford Theatre), Leederville
Plaza Theatre and Arcade, Perth
Regal Theatre, Subiaco
Royal Western Australian Institute for the Blind, Maylands
Windsor Cinema, Nedlands
Windsor Cinema, Perth

in Austria (more a merger of Art Deco and Art Nouveau called Jugendstil)
Karlsplatz Underground Pavilions, Vienna
Majolica house at the Naschmarkt, Vienna
Postparkasse, Vienna
Secession Building, Vienna
Victor Horta Museum, Brussels

in Belgium 
Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Brussels
Boerentoren (or Farmer's Tower), Antwerp
Clockarium, Schaerbeek
Europa Building, Brussels
Victor Horta Museum, Brussels
Hotel Solvay, Brussels
Hotel Tassel, Brussels
Hotel Van Eetvelde, Brussels
Paleis voor Schone Kunsten (Flemish) or Palais des Beaux-Arts (French), Brussels
Villa Empain, Brussels

in Bolivia
Mirador de la Ricoleta Church, Sucre
President Arce Station, Sucre
Teatro Gran Mariscal, Sucre


in Brazil
Altino Arantes Building (Bapespa or Bank of São Paulo), São Paulo
Christ the Redeemer
Rio de Janeiro

Art Deco Institute, Rio de Janeiro
Biarritz Building, Rio de Janeiro
Brasil Building - Copacobana, Rio de Janeiro
Casa Cavé, Rio de Janeiro
Casa Marajoara, Rio de Janeiro
Central Train Station of Brazil, Rio
Christ the Redeemer statue, Rio de Janeiro
Cine Arte-Palacio, Recife
Cine Ipanema, Rio de Janeior
Cine Ipiranga, São Paulo
Fórum Ministro Arnaldo Süssekind, Rio de Janeiro
Guahy Apartment Building, Rio de Janeiro
Guarani Building, São Paulo
 Paysandú Hotel, Rio de Janeiro
Higienopolis Building, São Paulo
Instituto Sedes Sapientiae, São Paulo
Itahy Building, Rio de Janeiro
Marechal Duque de Caxias Building, Rio de Janeiro
Niccolau Schlisser Building,São Paulo  
Paysandú Hotel, Rio de Jaineiro
Petronio Building, Rio de Janeiro
Porchat Building, São Paulo
Praça Sete de Setembro, Belo Horizonte
Regional Labor Court, Rio de Janeiro
Roxy Theater, Rio de Janeiro
Ufa-Palacio Cinema, Recife

in Chile
Cine Real, Puerto Varas

Peace Hotel, Shanghai
in China
Bank of China Building, Shanghai
Cathay Theater, Shanghai
Custom House, Shanghai
Empire Mansions Apartment Complex, Shanghai
Lincang Cinema, Lincang
Park Hotel, Shanghai
Paulun Hospital, Shanghai
Peace Hotel, Shanghai
Savoy Apartments, Shanghai
Shanghai Power and Light Building, Shanghai
Tsinghua University Admin Building, Beijing
Wukang Building, Shanghai

in Colombia
Cine Teatro Boyaca, Tunja
Teatro Faenza, Bogata

in Cuba
Bacardi Building, Havana
Casa de las Americas, Havana
Lopez Serrano Building, Havana
Prado Building, Havana
Pallas Cinema, Nicosia

in Cyprus
Limassol Town Hall, Limassol
Pallas Cinema, Nicosia
Sokrates Hotel, Kyrenia

in Denmark
Grundtvig Kirke, Copenhagen
Richhuset, Copenhagen
Stærekassen, Copenhagen

in England
Apollo Victoria Theatre, London
Arsenal Stadium, London (demolished in 2006)
Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Birmingham
Carreras Cigarette Factory, London
Battersea Power Station, London
BBC Broadcasting Building, London
Daily Telegraph Building
Fleet Street, London
Burgh Island Hotel, Burgh Island, Devon
Carreras Cigarette Factory, London
Daily Express Manchester Building, Manchester
Daily Telegraph Fleet Street Building, London
Du Cane Court, London
Eltham Palace, London
Florin Court, London
Gaumont State Theatre-Kilman, London
Norwich City Hall, Norwich
Redfern Building, Manchester
Odeon Theatre at Leicester Square, London
Plaza Cinema, Stockport
Queens Hotel, Leeds
Redfern Building, Manchester
Royal Institure of British Architects, London
Saint Olaf House, London
Selfridge's Department Store, London
Senate House - Bloomsbury, London
Southampton Civic Centre, Southampton
Sunlight House, Manchester

Cohan's Villa, Asmara
Eritrea's capital is a major Art Deco center
in Eritrea
Albergo Italia, Asmara
Alfa Romeo Building, Asmara
Avram Villa, Asmara
Cema Impero, Asmara
Cinema Capital
Cinema Decemhare, Decemhare
Cohan's Villa, Asmara
FIAT Tagliero Station, Asmara
Irga Building
Casa del Fascio (former Fascist HQ), Keren
Odeon Bar, Asmara
Selam Hotel, Asmara
Shell Garage, Asmara
Villa Laila, Asmara
Villa Grazia, Asmara


 Belvédère du Rayon Vert, Cerbère
in France
3 Rue Casimir Pinel Apartments, Neuilly-sur Seine
Atlantic Hotel, Cherbourg
Barbara Hamilton House, Rabouillet
Belvédère du Rayon Vert, Cerbère
Carnegie Library, Reims
Casino de Vittel, Vittel
Casino du Lac, Bagnole-de-l'Orne
Contréxeville Station, Contréxeville
 EDF Central Hydroelectric Plant, Bâthie  (Rhône-Alpes)
Gare de Rouen Rue Verte, Rouen
Génissiat Dam, Injoux-Génissiat (Rhône-Alpes)
Grand Magasins Ratti, Cherbourg
Grand Rex Cinema, Paris
La Normandy Cinema, Touquet-Paris-Plage
Palais de la Porte Dorée, Paris
Palais de Tokyo, Paris
Piscine due Tennis Club, Reims
Saint Jean-Baptiste Church, Bagnole-de-l'Orne
Sainte Jeanne-d'Arc Church, Nice
Théâtre de la Michodière, Paris
Trans-Atlantic Station, Cherbourg
Villa Magdalena Bénodet
 Borsigturm, Berlin

in Germany
Aussichtsturm Rotehornpark, Magdeburg
Beckerturn, St. Ingbert (Saarland)
Borsigturm, Berlin
Chilehaus, Hamburg
Davidwache Police Station, Hamburg
Geschwister Scholl Schule, Ludwigshafen
Handelshof, Lübeck
Hauptkirche-Sonnborn, Wupertal
Holy Cross Church, Gelsenkirchen
Maarmuseum, Manderscheid
Museum of Art and Cultural History (MKK), Dortmund
 Stormarnhaus, Hamburg
Rheinhallen Exposition Hall, Cologne
Rudolf Mosse Publishing House, Berlin
Senate of Finance Building, Bremen
Sprinkenhof, Hamburg
Stormarnhaus, Hamburg
Titania-Palast Theater, Berlin
Ullsteinhaus, Berlin
Tietz Department Store, Düsseldorf
Tonhalle, Düsseldorf
Villa Obenauer, Saarbrücken
Wilhelm-Marx-Haus (formerly Düsseldorf Stock Exchange; Europe's 1st skyscraper), Düsseldorf
Wilhelmshaven City Hall, Wilhelmshaven
Gutierrez BuildingQuetzaltenango, Guatemala
in Greece
Aquarium, Rhodes
National Theater (former Teatro Puccini), Rhodes
Town Hall, Kos

in Guatemala
Gutierrez Building, Quetaltenango
La Perla Building, Guatemala City





in Hungary
82 Radnóti Miklós Street Building
Kner-Villa
Kossuth Lajos Secondary School
Odeon Lloyd Egyptian Theatre
Puskin Cinema
Urania Nemzeti Cinema

in Iceland
Akureyrarkirkja, Akureyi
Hallgrimskirkja, Reykjavik

in India
Art Deco Palace, Morbi
Ayanat House, Kerala
Bina Cinema, Kolkata
Casino Theatre, Chennai
Damador Mangalji Building, Panjim
Cine Metropole, Margão
Cine Vishant, Margão
Connemara Hotel (Taj Connemara), Chennai
Curimji House, Mumbai
Damador Mangaliji, Panjim
Dossa Mansion, Mumbai
Empress Court Building, Mumbai
Eros Cinema, Mumbai
Firuz Ara, Mumbai
Green Fields Building, Mumbai
Hotel Sunderban, Pune
Imperial Hotel, Delhi
India Merchants Chamber, Mumbai
Industrial Assurance Building, Mumbai
Ivanhoe Building, Mumbai
Ivorine Building, Mumbai
Jeevan Prakash, Mumbai
Keshari Talkies Cinema, Bhubaneswar
Laha Paint House, Kolkata
Leela Palace Hotel, Bangalore
Soona Majal, Mumbai
Liberty Cinema, Mumbai
Life Insurance Corporation, Chennai
Mandovi Hotel, Goa
Market Building Unit 2, Bhubaneswar
Metro Cinema, Mumbai
Mohn Mansion, Mumbai
New India Assurance Building, Mumbai
Oceana Building, Mumbai
Parry Building (EID Parry Headquarters), Chennai
Patiala Mall, Patiala
Pilar Seminary, Goa
Presentation Convent, Margão
Rajjab Mahal, Mumbai
Ram Mahal, Mumbai
Ravindra Mansion, Mumbai
Regal Cinema, Mumbai
Roxy Talkies, Kolkata
Rutton Manor, Mumbai
Sardar Samand Palace, Jodhpur
Shiv Shanti Bhuvan, Mumbai
Soona Majal, Mumbai
State Bank of Hyderabad Headquarters, Hyderabad
Telephone Bhavan, Kolkata
Umaid Bhawan, Jodhpur
United India House, Mumbai
Usha Kiran Palace Hotel, Gwalior
Wellesley House, Kolkata
Windsor House, Mumbai
Zohair Mansion, Kolkata

in Indonesia
Bandung Institute of Technology (West Wing and East Wing buildings), Bandung
Denis Bank Building, Bandung
Pasteur Institute of Indonesia, Bandung
Hotel Preanger, Bandung
Jakarta Kota Railroad Station, Jakarta
Merdeka Building, Bandung
Metropole Complex, Jakarta
Museum Bank Mandiri (former Handel Maatschappij Building, Jakarta
Pasteur Institute of Indonesia, Bandung
Pesar Gede Harjonagoro, Surakarta
Savoy Homann Hotel, Bandung
Villa Isola, Bandung




in Ireland
Grafton Street Deco Tower (Nobletts Sweet Shop), Dublin
Gas Company Building, Dublin

in Italy (including Liberty Deco and Italian Fascist Deco, both controversially)
Balena Bathhouse, Versilia
Caffé Concerto Eden, Versilia
Central Train Station, Milan
Cinecittà, Rome
Grand Caffé Margherita, Versilia
Mercato Centrale, Florence
Mining Museum (former Asproni Mining School), Iglesias (Sardinia)
Palazzo Piacentini (Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia), Reggio Calabria
Supercinema, Versilia
Teatro dell'Opera, Rome
Town Hall, Meran (South Tyrol)
Villa Argentina, Versilia
Villa Arrighi, Versilia
Villa Bramanti, Versilia

St. Luke's Hospital, Tokyo
in Japan
Institute of Medical Science Hospital, University of Tokyo, Tokyo
St. Luke's Hospital, Tokyo
Tokyo Metropolitan Teien Art Museum (formerly Prince Yasuhiko Asaka Residence), Tokyo

in Kenya
Beneve Coffee House, Nairobi
Kenchic Inn, Nairobi
Sirona House, Nairobi


in Lithuania
Central Post Office, Kaunas
Kaunas Officers' House
National M. K. Ciurlionis Art Museum, Kaunas
Sacred Heart Church
Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
Pienocentras Headquarters Building, Kaunas
Vytauto Avenue 58 Residence, Kaunas
Vytautus the Great War Museum, Kaunas

in Luxembourg
13-17 Grand Rue, Luxembourg City
Ex-Rex-Esch on the Brillplatz, Esch-sur-Alzette
Hotel Alfa, Luxembourg City
Hotel de la Poste, Esch-sur-Alzette
Palais du Meuble Bonn Frères, Luxembourg City
Sacred Heart Church, Esch-sur-Alzette

Central Market, Kuala Lumpur
in Malaysia
Anglo-Oriental Building, Kuala Lumpur
Central Market, Kuala Lumpur
Coliseum Cinema, Kuala Lumpur
Lee Rubber Building (Nan Yi Building), Kuala Lumpur
Market Square Clock Tower, Kuala Lumpur
Odeon Theatre, Kuala Lumpur
Oriental Building, Kuala Lumpur
Penang Masonic Temple, George Town
Standard Chartered Building, George Town
UCBC Bank Building, George Town

in Malta
Muscat  Motors, Gzira

in Mexico
Coliseo, Puebla
Edificio Basurto, Mexico City
Edificio El Moro (National Lottery Building), Mexico City
Edificio Basurto, Mexico City
Edificio La Nacional, Mexico City
Edificio San Martín, Mexico City
El Pendùlo (bookstore, Avenida Nuevo Leon), Mexico City
Fuente de los Cántaros, Parque México, Mexico City
Lázaro Cárdenes Monument, Parque España, Mexico City
Monument to the Revolution, Mexico City
Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City
Parque México Clock, Mexico City
Plaza Popcatépal Fountain, Mexico City
Museo de Arte Popular, Mexico City

in Morocco
Jardin Majorelle
St. Peter's Cathedral, Rabat

 Drie Hoefijzers Building, Breda
in Mozambique
African Cinema, Maputo
Cine Teatro, Maputo

in the Netherlands
Cineac Cinema, Amsterdam
Drie Hoefijzers Building, Breda
Tuschinski Theater, Amsterdam
Zonnestraal Sanatorium, Hilversum

in New Zealand

-- in Napier
Abbots Building, Napier
AMP Building (now the New Zealand Wine Center), Napier
Anderson & Hansen Motors, Napier
AMP Building, Napier
Napier is a major Art Deco Centre
Criterion Hotel, Napier
Crown Hotel, Napier
Daily Telegraph Building, Napier
Daslgety's Building, Napier
Deco Centre (former Central Fire Station), Napier
Fenwick Building, Napier
Halsbury Chambers, Napier
Harston's Music Store, Napier
Hawkes Bay Chamber of Commerce, Napier
Hawkes Bay Museum, Napier
Hildebrandt Building, Napier
Loo Kee & Co. Building, Napier
Halsbury Chambers, Napier
Masson House, Napier
Napier Municipal Theatre, Napier
Napier Post Office, Napier
National Tobacco Company Building, Napier
Olympic Properties Building, Napier
Parkers Chambers, Napier
Provincial Hotel, Napier
Scinde Building, Napier
Telegraph Exchange, Napier
Thackeray House, Napier


-- Elsewhere in NZ outside Napier
Auckland Electric Power Board Substation, Auckland
Digby's Restaurant, Woodville
Hamilton Flats, Wellington
Leigh Buildings, Woodville
Valma House, Wellington
Viaduct Quay Building, Auckland

in Norway
Student Society Building, Trondheim

in the Philippines
Balantawak Brewery, Valenzuela City
Bellevue Theater, Manila
Bulacan Provincial Capitol, Malolos
Calumpit Municipal Hall, Calumpit
Calumpit Municipal Hall
Capital Theater, Manila
Captain Pepe Building, Manila
Cebu Provincial Capitol, Cebu City
Clipper Hotel, Makati
Manila Adventist Medical Center, Manila Metropolitan Theater, Manila
Manila Jockey Club, Manila
National Museum of the Philippines (former Legislative Building), Manila
Quezon Bridge, Manila
Nielson Tower, Makati
Philippine Coast Guard Headquarters, Manila
Quezon Bridge, Manila
Quezon Hall, University of Philippines, Manila
Quezon Memorial Circle, Quezon City
Rizal Memorial Stadium, Manila
Rizal Shrine, Intramuros
San Carlos Seminary
Santa Ana Racetrack, Makati
Sariaya Municipal Building, Sariaya
Scottish Rite Temple, Manila

in Portugal
Cais do Sodré, Lisbon
Casa de Serralves, Oporto
Cinema Batalha, Oporto
National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estatística), Lisbon
Nossa Senhora de Fátima (Our Lady of Fatima Church), Lisbon
Teatro Rivoli, Oporto

Nossa Senhora de Fátima, Lisbon

in Russia (the so-called "Soviet Deco" or "Stalinist Style")
Corintha Hotel, Saint Petersburg
Mayakovskaya Metro Station, Moscow
Detsky Mir, Moscow
Dynamo Building, Moscow
Hilton Moscow (former Leningradskaya Hotel), Moscow
Hotel Ukrania (Radisson Royal Hotel)
Kotelnicheskaya Embankment Building, Moscow
Kudrinkskaya Square Building, Moscow
Mayakovskaya Metro Station, Moscow
Metropole Hotel, Moscow
Ministry Foreign Affairs Building, Moscow
Moscow State University Building, Moscow
Red Flag Factory, Saint Petersburg
Red Gates Administrative Building, Moscow


in Scotland

Luma Tower, Glasgow
Beach Ballroom, Aberdeen
Beresford Hotel, Glasgow
Luma Tower, Glasgow
Ravelston Garden, Edinburgh
St. Andrews House, Edinburgh
Tait Tower, Glasgow

in Spain
Banco de Valencia, Valencia
Casa Jueva de Valencia (Valencia Jewish House), Valencia
Cine Xine (Chinese Cinema), Barcelona
Mercado Central (Central Market), Valencia

in South Africa
Anglo-American Corporation Building, Johannesburg
Ansteys Tower, Johannesburg
Surrey Mansions, Durban
Barbican Building, Johannesburg
Benoni City Hall, Benoni
Berea Court, Durban
Chamber of Mines Building, Johannesburg
Chester House, Durban
Colonial Mutual, Durban
Colosseum Building, Capetown
Empire Court, Durban
Herschel Court, Capetown
Manhattan Court, Durban
Memorial Tower, Durban
Namaqua House, Capetown
Old Mutual Building, Capetown
Surrey Mansions, Durban
Waalburg Building, Capetown

in Switzerland
Griderhaus, Zurich
Democracy Monument, Bangkok
Palace of Nations, Geneva

in Thailand
Bangkok Central Post Office, Bangkok
Chalerm Krung Cinema, Bangkok
Democracy Monument, Bangkok
National Stadium, Bangkok
Royal Hotel, Bangkok
Rama I Bridge

in Turkey
Ankara Central Rail Station
Ankara Opera House

in Uruguay
Banco La Caja Ibrero, Montevideo
Cine Ambassador, Montevideo
Cine Trocadoro, Montevideo
Comando General de la Armada Building, Montevideo
Edificio Artigas, Montevideo
Ejido Cinema, Montevideo
Goyret Building, Montevideo
Instituti de Higiene, Montevideo
Lapido Palace, Montevideo
Mástil Building, Montevideo
Montevideo City Hall, Montevideo
Montevideo Clinical Hospital, Montevideo
Montevideo Customs House, Montevideo
Nelly Goitiño Auditorium, Montevideo
Palacio Diaz, Montevideo
Palacio Rinaldi, Montevideo
Palacio Salvo, Montevideo
Proamar Building, Montevideo

Swansea Guildhall
in Wales
Cardiff Central Rail Station, Cardiff
Coliseum Cinema, Porthmadog
Guildhall, Swansea
Morannedd Cafe, Cricceth
Odeon Cinema, Newport
Newport Civic Centre, Newport
Penarth Pier, Penarth
Welsh National Temple of Peace and Health, Cardiff








CLIP ART SOURCES

1925  Exposition Internationale des Arts Déccoratifs et Industriels Modernes poster: http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/the-1925-paris-exhibition/

Shell-Mex Building, Buenos Aires, Photo by David Thompson: http://artdecobuildings.blogspot.com/2011/08/edificio-shell-mex-buenos-aires.html


Plinio Botelho do Aramal's Bank of São Paulo Building, photo by Filipe Mostarda: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altino_Arantes_Building#mediaviewer/File:Banespa_(By_Felipe_Mostarda).JPG

Rino Levi's Porchat Building, São Paulo: http://armazemperisc.blogspot.com/2012/06/nem-o-melhor-nem-o-pior.html

Arsenal Stadium, London: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arsenal_Stadium_Highbury_east_facade.jpg

Tuchinski Theater, Photo by Amsterdam Municipal Department for the Preservation and Restoration of Historic Buildings and Sites (bMA): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Haltusch.jpg

Jan Duiker and Bernard Bijvoet's Zonnestraal Sanatorium, Hilversum, photo by Jannes Linders: http://www.wmf.org/node/2088

Albert Aalbers' Savoy Homann Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia, photo by Jagawana: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Aalbers#mediaviewer/File:Savoy_Homann_Hotel_-_Oceanwave.jpg

Henri Maclaine-Pont's Tropical Dutch West Hall, Bandung Technical Institute, Photograph by Christian Wopperer: http://thisflyingdutchman.blogspot.com/2012/12/bandung-is-like-paris-err-sorta.html

Louis Hay's Deco Centre, Napier, New Zealand: http://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=49

Market Square Clock Tower, KL: http://blog.audioguidemalaysia.com/page/11/

E. A. Williams' Masson House, Napier New Zealand: http://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=90

J. T. Watson's Loo Kee & Co. Building, Napier: http://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=86

Juan Nakpil's Quezon Hall, photo by Krisela Jocson: http://kriseldajocson.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/sam_28562.jpg

Sydney Harbour Bridge: Photo by J.J. Harrison: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sydney_Harbour_Bridge_from_Circular_Quay.jpg

Mackay Post Office, photo by Oz_lightning: 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/oz1/13907718569/

Hindmarsh Town Hall, photo by de-collette, flickr: https://c2.staticflickr.com/2/1325/1317888890_00d6839bc8_z.jpg

Newspaper House, Melbourne: http://www.thecollectormm.com.au/gallery/photography/City/slides/CollinsCentral2.jpg

Edith Cowan Memorial, Perth: http://davidvictorvector.blogspot.com/2014/07/art-deco-outside-north-america.html

Victor Horta Museum, Brussels, Photo by Creative Lounge: http://nay-k.de/creative/?p=149

Christ the Redeemer statue, Rio de Janeiro, Photo by JC Salmon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_the_Redeemer_(statue)#mediaviewer/File:Cristo_Redentor_Rio_de_Janeiro_4.jpg

Paysandú Building, Rio de Janeiro: http://www.select-a-room.com/hotel-list/brazil/rio-de-janeiro


Peace Hotel, Shanghai: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peace_et_Palace_Hotel.jpg  

Pallas Cinema, Nicosia, Photo by Filippos-K: https://c1.staticflickr.com/3/2620/4153870408_5da813dfd7.jpg

Carreras Cigarette Factory, London, Photo by M@ggie on Panoramio: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/55475223.jpg

Daily Telegraph Building, Fleet Street, London, photo by George Louis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Daily_Telegraph#mediaviewer/File:Daily_Telegraph_building_in_London,_England,_1974.jpg

Redfern Building, Manchester, Photo by Stephen Richards: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Redfern_Building,_Manchester.jpg

Cohan's Villa, Asmara, Eritrea: http://www.traveladventures.org/continents/africa/asmara-architecture06.html

Belvédère du Rayon Vert, Cerbère: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hotel_du_Rayon_Vert.jpg

Borsigturm, Berlin, Photo by Hans G. Oberlack: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Borsigturm.JPG

Stormarnhaus, Hamburg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hh-Stormarnhaus.jpg

Gutierrez Building, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala:  http://guatemalatourism.wordpress.com/2012/06/18/guatemala-tourism-xela-centro-city-square-art-deco-gutierrez-building/

Damador Magalji Building, Panjim, photo by José Lourenço: http://goanarchitecture.blogspot.com/2008/11/curvy-art-deco-cad-of-yesterday.html

Soona Majal, Mumbai: http://www.thenational.ae/storyimage/AB/20130328/GALLERY/303289885/EP/1/5/EP-303289885.jpg&MaxW=558&MaxH=372

Pasteur Institute of Indonesia: http://thisflyingdutchman.blogspot.com/2012/12/bandung-is-like-paris-err-sorta.html

St. Luke's Hospital, Tokyo, Photo by Bobak Ha'Eri: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:20080312-StLukesInternationalHospital.jpg

Sacred Hearth Church, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg, photo by Zinneke: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Église_du_Sacré-Coeur_(Esch-sur-Alzette)#mediaviewer/File:Grenzer_Kierch_Esch-Uelzecht_2011-02.jpg

Central Market, Kuala Lumpur, Photo by Azreey: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:KLCentralMarket.JPG

Edificio Basurto, Mexico City: http://sp5.fotolog.com/photo/5/40/11/michpromexico/1262958304445_f.jpg

Drie Hoefijzers Building, Breda, photo by Ossip van Duivenbrode: http://www.architectureguide.nl/project/list_projects_of_architect/arc_id/2145/prj_id/2456

AMP Building, Napier: http://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=2

Halsbury Chambers, Napier: http://www.napier.govt.nz/services/planning-and-resource-consents/heritage-buildings/building?rid=56

Calumpit Municipal Hall, photo by Rene Langwerder: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/72423998.jpg

Quezon Bridge, Photo by Adrian Biblanias: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WTMP_Shutters_101.JPG

Nossa Senhora de Fátima, Lisbon, Photo by Therese C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Santu%C3%A1rio_de_F%C3%A1tima_%283%29_-_Jul_2008.jpg

Mayakovskaya Metro Station, photo by Yuri Degtarev: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=255310

Luma Tower, Glasgow, Photo by Darren Antrobus: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Luma_Tower_-_geograph.org.uk_-_444210.jpg

Surrey Mansions, Durban: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco_in_Durban

Democracy Monument, Bangkok, Photo by Sven Petersen: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Democracy_Monument_Bangkok_001.JPG

Swansea, Guildhall, Wales: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Swansea_guildhall.jpg