Welcome to the David Victor Vector Blog

Welcome to the David Victor Vector blog. This is blog that covers religious observances around the world international affairs and global business. This blog describes religious holidays for most major religions as well as raising issues dealing with globalization, international business ethics, cross-cultural business communication and political events affecting business in an integrated world economy. I look forward your discussion and commentary on these articles and subjects. Enjoy!

Wednesday, February 10, 2021

Year of the White Metal Ox (2021): Some Background

Friday, February 12, 2021 begins the Year of the Ox. It is the beginning of the year 4718 (in some traditions, 4719) in the Asian lunar system, which is the Year of the White Metal Ox.

Note that in both Chinese and Japanese, this is most commonly associated with the OX, the actual term for  the Year of the (niú in Chinese; kyōiku in Japanese) which can mean either an Ox or a Cow. In Korea, the zodiac animal is more commonly associated with a cow, although 소 (so) can mean cow or ox. Among Nepal's Gurung Ghurkas, the animal can only be a  a cow.  Finally, in the Vietnamese zodiac, the animal is a water buffalo (sửu/trâu). For all others, the ox/cow meaning is shared. For our purposes, we will refer to the zodiac animal as an ox unless specifically referring to where it is a cow or water buffalo.

In today’s posting, I would like to share with you some specifics about the Year of the Ox as well as some background to the Asian Zodiac system as a whole.  

1)   One New Year: Many Traditional New Year Customs Around the World for differences in traditional celebrations around the world.

2)  Business Impact In years past, I have posted separately in the  the business effects from travel to special editions of coins, stamps and gifts for the Lunar New Year around the world. I have not had the chance to do so this year. You may find the post from last year of value in giving an idea of this. Here is the post from the   

3) Celebrations around the world. Likewise in years past I have listed roughly 250 celebrations, parades and festivals held around the world outside of countries where the majority of the population celebrates the Lunar New Year. Unfortunately, with the COVID-19 pandemic, these were mostly cancelled both in 2020 and 2021.  Before the the pandemic, in the PRC alone, travelers for the Chunyun travel period made roughly 3 billion individual trips. In 2020, that number had collapsed to roughly 1.5 billion trips -- to be sure still the largest movement of people for a single event that year, but a fraction of what it had been. The BBC chart below visually brings home the point.
To learn more of how this took shape in earlier years as well as a list of celebrations outside East Asia, here is the 2017 link as an example. for the 2017 list.

The Asian Zodiac Briefly Explained 

The Asian Zodiac (or horoscope) associated with the Asian or Chinese Lunar New Year is taken very seriously by those who follow it in their tradition. The significance attributed to the combinations associated with the Asian horoscope affects business decisions, dates selected for important events such as weddings, and many other aspects of daily life. These views are widely shared, with a larger following than any single religion -- Western or Eastern. As a result, these beliefs should be treated with the respect accorded a religious belief (rather than with that of superstition as Western astrology is sometimes treated).

The Lunar Calendar

Because the Asian lunar calendar follows the moon, it seems to move within our solar-based Gregorian calendar. Moreover, the Gregorian calendar does not correspond fully with the Asian lunar calendar. Thus, February 8 marks the beginning of the Asian lunar calendar only this year. Last year in 2020 the Year of the Rat began on January 25. Similarly, the Lunar New year began  February 5  for the Year of the Pig in 2019; on February 16 for the Year of the Dog in 2018, January 28 for the Year of the Rooster in 2017; February 8, 2016 for the Year of the Monkey, and so forth.

The Twelve Animals of the Zodiac

The lunar calendar runs on a cycle of 12 years each represented by an animal.  The animals all have a balance of compatibility or incompatibility as represented in their place in the circle of the 12-year cycle. This year is the Year of the Ox, the last and 2nd animal in the cycle. 

The 12 Animals of the Zodiac

The 12 animals in their order are

  1. Rat
  2. Ox
  3. Tiger
  4. Rabbit
  5. Dragon
  6. Snake
  7. Horse
  8. Ram/Sheep/Goat
  9. Monkey
  10. Rooster
  11. Dog
  12. Pig

Each animal corresponds to a month of the lunar year. The ox, this year's governing animal, corresponds to the 2nd animal in the cycle.

The Five Elements of the Wu Xing Cycle

Additionally, each 12-year cycle of animals runs on an additional cycle corresponding to the Wu Xing cycle of the five traditional Chinese elements. These are
  1. metal
  2. fire
  3. wood
  4. water
  5. earth
  6. Wu Xing Cycle

The five elements are in balance with each other, the basis of much of feng shui. For this Lunar New Year, the governing element is Metal.

Combined, each of the five elements combines with each of the 12 animals that forms a 60-year cycle.  The current 12-year cycle combines the Ox with the element of Metal.

Each element is also associated with a color. In the case of earth, that color is white.

Thus, this year is the Year of the White Metal Ox.

Spiritual Importance of the Asian Horoscope

Many followers of the Asian zodiac have a formal religious belief in the importance of the animal element combinations associated with each year in the 60-year cycle. This is clearly the case for those practicing Taoism.

Taoist Tradition

For Taoists, the New Year is always of religious significance. This because in Taoism, the Lunar New Year's first day is a time when lesser deities or spirits are believed to ascend to the throne of the Jade Emperor (King of Heaven).  In Taoist tradition, the 12 animals were in a contest to greet the Jade Emperor; a 13th animal – the cat – was tricked by the rat (about five variations of how exist), which explains why cats have hated rats ever since.  A children's version of this story is told in an very pleasant rendition at the Topmarks education site. I encourage you to take a look at this version at 

The 12 Zodiac animals
in their race
Buddhist Tradition

The New Year is a religious event as well for a great number of the sects of Buddhism, and most famously for Tibetan and Burmese Buddhists. In Buddhist tradition, the 12 animals were in a race to do honor to Lord Buddha on the eve of his death.   

East Asian Folk Beliefs

East Asian folk beliefs are a broad grouping of folk practices that range from deeply-held religious traditions )to popular practices rooted in the local cultures. These practices are widespread, and have a far greater reach than those who claim a specific faith (Taoism or Buddhism) to those who claim a different belief or no belief at all. In Chinese, these have perhaps a dozen  names such as "Chinese ethnic religion" or mínjiān zōngjiào (族宗教) or Shenxianism or shénxiān jiào (神仙教). In Mongolian, these practices are known as Tengrism or reverence of Tengri (the Mongolian name for the Jade Emperor). In Korean, the Great Race is included in the Han'guk sinwha or Korean mythological narratives associated with Shindo (신도) ith, followed as folk practices not only by Buddhists and those claiming no religion but even among some Christian groups as a local custom.  

The strength of these folk beliefs is often difficult for those in Europe and the Americas to understand. A counterpart to the range of adherence to these folk religions put in the context of Europe and the Americas would be the broad grouping of deeply-held religious beliefs  as "Protestant" despite being separate faiths (e.g., Baptist, Unitarian, Methodist) to popular non-Christian but deeply-held semi-religious traditions (e.g., folk religion) practices rooted in the local culture such as Santa Claus, the Christmas Tree, the Easter Bunny, etc. 

Additionally, though Confucianism is not technically a religion (but rather a philosophical system), its followers also traditional observe the Lunar New Year to show reverence to their ancestors.  Because of this, even Christians and practitioners of other faiths in such countries as  as Korea, Bhutan or Vietnam generally celebrate the holiday. The same holds true for those people in cultures with strong Confucian customs who have no religion at all or for those with mixed traditions.

The Role of the Ox in the Great Race

In all of the traditions, the arrival of the animals was the same in order. In other words, in all traditions, the ox arrived second even though seeming at first to have won the race. While each zodiac animal int the Great Race is significant, the story of the Ox in the great race is particularly important. All 13 animals (including the rat who arrived after the race ended) had to pass over land and water to reach the Jade Emperor/Lord Buddha. 

The ox was the strongest and most persistent of all the animals and was equally strong as a runner and a swimmer. When the ox reached the mighty river where the Jade Emperor/Lord Buddha was waiting, the cat and rat were already waiting on the bank. Because they could not swim, they asked the ox if they could ride on his back across the river. In return, they offered to guide the ox (who had poor eyesight) to the opposite side. The good-natured and trusting ox agreed. 

While riding on the ox's back, the rat pushed the cat into the river. The cat, unable to swim, was swept along the current and never finished the race (which is the explanation of the enmity between cats and rats to this day). Once on the other side, the ox easily reached the end of the race in what should have been first place. 
Instead, the rat was the first animal to greet the Jade Emperor/Lord Buddha. The rat had never left the ox's back.  When the two reached Lord Buddha on the other shore, the rat jumped off the ox’s head, reaching the Jade Emperor/ Lord Buddha first.  The rat, through his trickery and deception was rewarded with the first position in the zodiac, while the ox had to settle for second place. 

The after effects of the rat and ox story are believed to govern behavior of those born in the Year of the Ox to this day. Ox people are wary of dishonesty, twisted truths and scheming --- all characteristic of Rat people. The Year of the Ox is a time for regrouping after the upheavals of the Year of the Rat which precedes it.

Chinese Astrology Not A Particular Accurate Term

The system discussed here is often called Chinese astrology. This is a misnomer for two reasons.  First, the holiday is far more widely observed than in just China, especially in Korea, Singapore, Bhutan, Japan, Tibet, Mongolia, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam as well as those from these backgrounds living in other countries. 

East Asian lunar zodiac
That said, for all the culturally diverse places in which the Asian New Year is celebrated, the calendar on which it is based does have its origins in China. The first written records of the calendar and the celebration of the New Year date to China’s Shang Dynasty (1766-1050 BC), although traditionally it is believed to date back to the rule of the semi-mythical Yellow Emperor Huang Di around 2600 BC.

A second reason the phrase Chinese astrology is a misnomer is that the system really has nothing to do with constellations as astrology does in the West. It is less a reading of the stars than an interpretation of the importance of the time, date and year in which one is born.  To the extent that when one is born matters to Western-style astrology, there is a correspondence. Moreover, there is another similarity as the five elements in the system, in fact, do correspond with the five planets known in ancient China.

Tang Dynasty (8th Century), Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xian, China

Because of these corresponding commonalities with Western astrology, many people call the Asian system’s combinations of animals and elements the lunar or Chinese “horoscope”.  This is a bit of a misnomer, however, not only for the reasons just described but because the way in which people view the two “horoscopes” is very different.  

The difference here is that many people (although with many exceptions) in Europe, Australia and the Americas consider the Western zodiac horoscope of star signs (Scorpio, Sagittarius, etc.) to be a form of superstition, a game or something believed only partially. 

This is NOT the case with the Asian lunar horoscope cycle, where people follow their sign very seriously. As a result, the system, though it transcends that of any specific religion, should be treated with the respect accorded religious beliefs. In any case, the point here is that in a cross-cultural and inter-religious sense, the issue of lunar horoscope animal element signs should be treated with respect.

Geomancy, Feng Shui and Zodiac Consultants' Influence

The importance attributed to the predictions of the each animal affects business and political decisions for over one billion people. Among the notable masters, many have an influence among Chinese and other East Asian diaspora communities as well as a growing number of non-Asian adherents. Among the earlier populizers of East Asian zodiac forecasting were book authors such as Man-ho Kwok who published over a dozen books in English on the subject in the 1990s. 

As the Internet grew and ties with East Asian business leaders became more intertwined,  many other Masters grew in importance outside of East Asia. For example, the Trump organization and Donald Trump himself relied on the guidance of New York-based Master Pun-Yin in the building of Trump Tower. Canadian-based Paul Ng was notable already for a wide range of clients in 66 countries before his appearances on US-based CNN in 2013, US-based Bloomberg TV and Canada's CTV in 2014 made him a recognizable figure thereafter to a wide audience. Likewise Hong Kong-based Grand Master Raymond Lo has had audience's well outside of China also appearing on the BBC, CNN, "Good Morning America" more. He has carried a wide following since his prediction of the fall of the USSR's Mikhail Gorbachev in 1991 and the 2000 NASDAQ collapse.  

Personality Traits and Asian Astrological Year
Year of the Ox sidewalk plate
Philadelphia Chinatown

Many people attribute a great deal of significance to the personality traits attributed to the animal associated with the year in which they are born. These are not something that people take lightly.

Each animal has its own traits, and then each animal and element combination has their own subtraits. These are explained later in the blog.

As with all Asian Lunar zodiac animals, Ox people have both positive and negative attributes. 

Positive Ox Traits

Ox people (and thus the effects of the Year of the Ox) are associated with a strong but steady approach. As  Master Pun-yin puts it: "The Ox is strong and patient. Refreshingly unpretentious and resolute." 

Ox people work from the ground up, and disdain abstract plans, quick talkers and dishonesty. Ox people are reliable precisely because they are honest and trustworthy themselves.
Mongolian Zodiac Ox, 19th Century
National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD

Man-Ho Kwok in his book on Chinese Astrology builds on this, noting that Ox people:
have a quiet and steady nature and are perseverant even in the most trying circumstances because once you have made a commitment you keep your word (p. 14).
Ox people have the tendency to see things through to the end. Man-Ho Kwok explains that Ox people
are well-liked because of your honesty and patience, and your close friends appreciate the fact that you are rather introverted and wary of new trends... (p. 14)
The Year of the Ox is a year in which people recuperate and draw into the logical and the calm. 

Negative Ox Traits

The negative side of Ox people is the flip-side of their tenacity: stubborn. In her webinar to the National University of Singapore Society, Master Lynn Yap,  Master Lynn Yap (January 28, 2021), points out that the 

Ox is also very stubborn and tends not to listen to anyone except himself or herself.
Relatedly, ox people have difficulty dealing with uncertainty, crave security and, above all, cannot tolerate deception. As Moon-ho Kwok explains of Ox people:

when there are emotional upheavals, you will consider whether the blame lies with you; however, you do find it hard to forgive if you have been deceived. (p. 15) 

Compatibility With Other Signs

Poor compatibility.

Ox people do not pair well with many other signs. They are at greatest risk with those born in the Year of the Horse, Goat/Ram, Dragon and Tiger.  
High Compatibility

Ox people are generally most compatible with people born in the Year of the Rooster, the Snake and -- despite the story of the Great Race -- the Rat.
Ox Fuji Omuro Sengen Shrine, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan

Ox people share with Rooster people a passion for detail. They are the most systematic and meticulous signs of the Zodiac.  The introversion of Ox people is often offset by the outgoing nature of Rooster people, with each balancing the other. The Rooster gets the Ox to look outward more and the Ox restrains the Rooster from excessive grandstanding.

Ox people are compatible with Snake people because both value introspection and prefer the unvarnished truth to sugar-coating. Both strongly value loyalty and both risk suspicion of deception; that said, as long as each gives no cause for jealousy, this is a strong match.

Finally, Ox people match with Rat people equally well.  Rat people spark passion that is often missing in the steady-going Ox personality. Ox people, in turn,  tone down Rat people's less down-to-earth ideas. 

Han Huang (723-787), "Five Oxen (五牛圖), Palace Museum, Beijing

Famous Ox People

Ox people usually do not seek fame or power, but they frequently end up in leadership positions despite this.  
  1. Unwavering beliefs.   When those outcomes are positive, this is inspiring by their example. The flip side of this, though, is that Ox people have a disproportionate representation among fanatics and dictators (famously, Adolph Hitler was born in the Year of the Ox)
  2. Dedication to hard work. Because Ox people are the most hardworking animal of the zodiac, they simply do not give up when those from other signs would falter. This trait affects nearly all professions but is particularly notable in areas such as the commitment to training needed to become world-class athletes and strong work ethic in professions such as acting demanding periods of hard work over long hours.
  3. Calmness under pressure.  Because Ox people remain calm and focused, they often excel in tense crises or rapidly changing circumstances. Because of this, Ox people are do well not only as top-tier athletes but as world-class military leaders.

Once Ox people have made up their minds hold to their beliefs with unmatched tenacity.  When others give up, the Ox moves on strong and steady regardless of the end. What were once unpopular views in time become the accepted position over time. makes them successful political leaders as change agents such as political activists, entrepreneurs,  or creative innovators in music and the arts

Famous Ox People -- Political Activists
  • Mulala Yousafzai, Women & Children's Rights Activist; youngest ever Nobel Peace Prize laureate 
  • Malcom X, Human Rights Activist and Nation of Islam leader 
  • Rosa Parks, Civil Rights Activist, central figure of the Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Claire Wineland, Cystic Fibrosis and Disability Rights Activist
Famous Ox People -- Entrepreneurial Change Agents
  • Sergei Brin, Google Co-Founder, Internet Pioneer
  • Levi Strauss, Founder of Levi Strauss & Co. and Creator of Blue Jeans
  • Walt Disney, animator, film producer and entertainment innovator
Famous Ox People -- Innovators in Art
Famous Ox People -- Innovators in Music
  • Louis Armstrong, Jazz Great, trumpeter, composer and singer who redefined popular music
  • B.B. King, King of the Blues
  • Antonín Dvorak, Classical Composer, innovator of folk elements in symphonic music
  • Bruce Springsteen, "The Boss" Singer-Songwriter in multiple genres from rock to folk
  • Bruno Mars, Musician, Singer-Songwriter in multiple genres from Rock to Hip-Hop to Reggae

Famous Ox People -- Military Strategists
Famous Ox People -- World-Class Sports
  • Cristiano Ronaldo, Portuguese soccer great with soccer's world record for most goals
  • Wayne Gretzky, Canadian Hockey Great with most scores in NHL history
  • Katie Ledecky, US swimmer with 5 Olympic and 15 World Championship gold medals, the most for any female swimmer
  • Simone Biles, Most decorated US gymnast, with 30 Olympic and World Championship medals
Famous Ox People -- Acting
  • Meryl Streep, Actress, nominated for record 21 Academy Awards (winning 3) and record 32 Golden Globes (winning 9)
  • Dustin Hoffman, Award-Winning Actor and Filmmaker
  • Phoebe Waller-Bridge, Award-Winning Writer, Director and Actress, creator of "Fleabag"
  • George Clooney, Award-Winning Writer, Director and Actor, philanthropist
  • Gal Gadot, Wonder Woman Actress
Famous Ox People -- World Leaders (Positive)
Infamous Ox people -- World Leaders (Negative)

Year of the Earth Ox Predictions

Predictions for the Year of the Metal Ox are based on the personality attributes ascribed to the characteristics believed to describe all people born under the Ox zodiac sign. The attributes of metal are then superimposed on this.

Whatever one's own view on such predictions personally may be, it is important to keep in mind that somewhere in the realm of one billion people believe such predictions to be true, with at least 500 million taking such predictions seriously enough to affect decisions on business, investments, marriage, and having children among others. 

The personality attributes of people born in the Year of the Ox were described in greater detail above. Generally speaking they are people who are, as Hong Kong-based astrologer Jupiter Lai describes them in the Japan Times,  "grounded, loyal, gentle and trustworthy." The same article (by Kathleen Wortley), summarizes Lai's predictions for the transition from the closing chaos of 2020's Year of the Rat to a more stable Year of the Ox:

In the Year of the Rat, the force was the fast, hard, active yang while the element was water, which Lai says is known for “changing all the time.” The ox’s earthly branch, meanwhile, is associated with yin, which is slow, soft and passive. Its element is earth, representing “stability and nourishment. It is believed these additional associations and the characteristics of the ox have great synergy and are mostly favorable.

Master Paul Ng, in a January 2021 interview with Nina Doiron on Toronto TV predicted a "much better 2021 than 2020." As Doiron points out that Master Ng correctly predicted the pandemic the July before it struck, that would not take much. Master Ng (about 6 minutes into the interview) indicates that the coming year "will be a significantly better year but the wound will take some time to heal." 

Okatama Ivory Netsuke Recumbent Ox  (late 1700s)
Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco

In predictions, those making predictions emphasize that more is involved than the animal of the year -- in this case the Ox. The element -- in this case metal -- is just as important. As Master Raymond Lo explains with regard to the economic forecast of the coming year, 

Industries belonging to the Fire Element can expect prosperity because Fire conquers Metal, and Metal is Fire’s money. Fire industries include energy, power generation, restaurants, and entertainment.
Next are industries belonging to the Earth Element because Earth conquers Water and produces Metal. Metal means activity and productivity, and Water inside the Ox also means money, and Water is Earth’s money. Earth industries include real estate, land development, mining, insurance, computer software, and technology.

Chou Dynasty Ox, 
Science and Society
Picture Library
Wellcome Trust

It is important to keep in mind that while many outside of East Asia may look at this as amusing, between 500 million to 1 billion people take such predictions quite seriously. It is hard to tell if the predictions draw people to behave in certain ways thus becoming self-fulfilling prophecies (the non-believer view) or are accurately foretold (the believers' view). The reality, though, is that t
he predictions of someone of the standing of Master Lo or Master Ng (or any number of other master chart readers) have a direct impact on decision-making both in business (mining precautions this year, for instance), when to take action (think first long and hard before speaking let alone acting on something) and politics (tread carefully as what appears peaceful on the surface may well not have much foundation beneath it).  

It is important to note that the animal of one’s birth year is not seen as fully able to stand on its own in understanding an individual’s personality traits and tendencies. These must at a minimum, as we have discussed, take into account the associated five elements. Additionally, East Asian astrologers account for the inner or secret animal assigned by the day of the month and hour of the day on which one is born.  In all, there are 8640 combinations (e.g., 12 months, 5 elements, 12 months, 12 times of day).

The prediction must be based an extensive reading for each person that varies according to where one is located and what one's own zodiac sign and time of birth are.

Whatever your outcome for the year, Happy Year of the Metal Ox!

Clip Art Sources:

Yin Yang animation: http://www.eharrishome.com/Kungfu.html

Ox from Tang Dynasty (8th Century), Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xian, China in Yongae Lim, "The 'Lion and Kunlun Slave' Image: A Motif of Buddhist Art Found in Unified Silla Funerary Sculpture, Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 18, no.2 October 2018, p. 169.

The 12 Zodiac animals in their race:  http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/firefoxthief/zodiaccolor.jpg'

Year of the Ox sidewalk plate, Philadelphia Chinatown: Own photograph

"Mongolian Zodiac Ox,"19th Century, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, https://wayback.archive-it.org/7867/20190220143844/https://ceb.nlm.nih.gov/proj/ttp/mongolian-gallery.html

Ox Fuji Omuro Sengen Shrine, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, photo by Keith Crowley, Tokyofotos, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2021/01/01/lifestyle/2021-year-ox/ 

Han Huang (723-787), "Five Oxen (五牛圖), Palace Museum, Beijing, China Online Museum, https://www.comuseum.com/painting/masters/han-huang/five-bulls/

Okatama Ivory Netsuke Recumbent Ox  (late 1700s), Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco http://searchcollection.asianart.org/view/objects/asitem/search@/2?t:state:flow=47769b37-2e30-4568-ac9c-2293e0b63a5e 

"Closing papercut flower circle ox," Cny 2021 metal ox symbol in papercut flower circle, white and red. bull, zodiac sign Chinese New Year
Want to Learn More

For Master astrologers influence referenced above, please see the links already in the article as well as

Sasha von Oldershausen (Sept. 13, 2016), "Meet Donald Trump's feng shui master," The Guardian,

For more on the Year of the Ox for 2021, please see for serious astrologers:

Nina Doiron (Jan. 28, 2021), "Feng Shui Master, Paul Ng, Interview, Toronto, Canada," Toronto TV, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fuq1yu1d1GY&feature=emb_logo

Kathleen Wortley (Jan. 21, 2021), After a year of anxiety, what can we expect from the Year of the Ox in 2021?" Japan Times, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2021/01/01/lifestyle/2021-year-ox/

For more on the Asian Zodiac and Astrology in General, please see:

Richard Craze, Handbook of Chinese Astrology, Lorenz Books, 2013.

Man-ho Kwok, Chinese Astrology: Forecast Your Future from Your Chinese Horoscope, Tuttle Publishing, 1997.

Theodora Lau and Laura Lau, The Handbook of Chinese Horoscopes (7th edition), Collins Reference, 2010.

Susan Levitt and Jean Tang, Taoist Astrology: A Handbook of the Authentic Chinese Tradition, Destiny Books, 1997.

David W. Pankenier, Astrology and Cosmology in Early China: Conforming Earth to Heaven, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Neil Somerville, Your Chinese Horoscope for Each and Every Year, Harper Thomsons, 2017.

Ruth Q. Sun and Norma Sun, Asian Animal Zodiac, Tuttle Publishing, 2012.

Xiaochun Sun, "Crossing the Boundaries Between Heaven and Man: Astronomy in Ancient China," in Astronomy Across Cultures, ed. Helaine Selin and adv. ed. Sun Xiaochun: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

David Twicken, Five Element Chinese Astrology Made Easy, iUniverse, 2000.

Derek Walters, The Complete Guide to Chinese Astrology, Watkins Publishing, 2005.

Suzanne White, The New Chinese Astrology, Thomas Dunne Books, 2015.

Charles Alfred Speed Williams. Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs (2000), New York: Castle Books.

Shelly Wu, Chinese Astrology: Exploring the Eastern Zodiac, New Page Books, 2005.

Shelly Wu, The Definitive Book of Chinese Astrology, Weiser, 2010.

Zhongzian Wu, The 12 Chinese Animals: Create Harmony in your Daily Life through Ancient Chinese Wisdom, Singing Dragon Press, 2010.

Zhongzian Wu and Karin Taylor Wu, Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches: The Heart of Chinese Wisdome Traditions, Singing Dragon Press, 2016.

Master Pun-Yin, "Chinese Zodiac," https://www.punyin.com/feng-shui/chinese-zodiac/index.html

Ho-Peng Yoke, Chinese Mathematical Astrology: Reaching Out to the Stars, Routledge, 2003. This is the pre-eminent book on the mathematical science of Asian lunar horoscope calculations. It is downloadable at http://www.ebook3000.com/Chinese-Mathematical-Astrology--Reaching-out-for-the-stars--Needham-Research-Institute-Series-_130932.html

For general popular websites on Asian Astrology and the Zodiac, please see:

China Voc.com "Zodiac" http://www.chinavoc.com/zodiac/index.asp

Chinese Fortune Calendar http://www.chinesefortunecalendar.com/5EBasic.htm

Chinese Horoscope-e.com, "Basic Chinese Horoscope," http://chinesehoroscop-e.com/index.html

Malaysia Site, "Chinese New Year,"  http://www.malaysiasite.nl/newyear.htm

Online Chinese Astrology http://www.onlinechineseastrology.com/

Topmarks Education, "Zodiac Story, Chinese New Year."  http://www.topmarks.co.uk/ChineseNewYear/ZodiacStory.aspx

"Your Chinese Astrology": https://www.yourchineseastrology.com/

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