Welcome to the David Victor Vector Blog

Welcome to the David Victor Vector blog. This is blog that covers religious observances around the world international affairs and global business. This blog describes religious holidays for most major religions as well as raising issues dealing with globalization, international business ethics, cross-cultural business communication and political events affecting business in an integrated world economy. I look forward your discussion and commentary on these articles and subjects. Enjoy!

Sunday, November 6, 2011

Eid al-Adha 2021

In 2021, on the evening of Monday, July 19 concluding on the evening of Tuesday, July 20 at sunset, (depending on the sighting of the moon) marks the beginning of the three days of the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha or the Festival of the Sacrifice. Students, staff and faculty should be accommodated for observance of the holiday. Some debate exists as to whether the holiday should be marked by when it occurs over Mecca or when it occurs in the location in question (for instance, North America).   For some, therefore, the holiday may begin on August 20 at sunset. I take no stance on this, and am merely stating that some differences may exist in interpretation.

Dating the Holiday

The holiday actually begins every year on the 10 Dhu al-Hijjah in the Islamic calendar.  However, since the Gregorian calendar (the one used in the secular United States) is a solar calendar and the Islamic calendar is a lunar one, the date of Eid al-Adha (as with all Muslim holidays) appears to travel within the Gregorian calendar. 

About Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Adha is Arabic for the Festival of Sacrifice, and is named in remembrance of the readiness of Ibrahim (Abraham) to sacrifice his son. In the Koran (37:99–111), the son whom Ibrahim is willing to sacrifice is not named; however, in Islamic tradition, the son is believed to be Ismail (Ishmael), not (Ishaq) Isaac as in the Jewish and Christian versions of the story.  In Islam, both sons are considered prophets. 

Another name for the holiday is Eid al-Kabir or the Greater Eid (in contrast to the earlier Eid al-Fitr, the Lesser Eid that marks the end of Ramadan). Eid al-Kabir is the name more commonly used in North Africa, Yemen and Syria. Because of this, in French, the name of the holiday is Aid el-Kebir. In Turkish, the holiday is called Kurban Bayrami and as a result, the holiday is called by some variant of Kurban in many of the languages of those nations formally under the rule of the Ottoman Empire including Kurdish, Albanian, Serbo-Croatian and Azeri as well as borrowed from the Turkish in many other languages including Russian, Pashto, Sindhi, Kazakh, Farsi, Pashto and Tatar.

Association with the Hajj 

Eid al-Adha also marks the end of the Hajj to Mecca (Makkah). The Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, required of every Muslim once in his or her lifetime. For this reason, the holiday is sometimes called the Festival of the Hajj (Hari Raya Haji in Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Malaysia). 

For 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Hajj will be limited only to Saudi citizens and permanent residents, with a maximum of 60,000 as a cap.
Eid pilgrimage, Mecca, 2020 during COVID pandemic

This is still less restrictive than in 2020 when the Hajj was limited to just 10,000 pilgrims. 

The Saudi government indicated for 2019, by contrast, that the number of pilgrims reached 2,489,406.

Pilgrims during the Hajj Pilgrimage in Mecca, 2018

Moreover, the Hajj was 2.37 million in 2018 and
2.35 million pilgrims in 2017. This 2017 number was the first time the number of pilgrims has been allowed to pass the 2 million mark after a series of restrictions had been in place. 

This marked a recovery from crisis in crowd management that began in 2013, as the chart below shows.

Hajj pilgrims, 1999-2019 (Statista, 2021)

Eight years ago in 2013, the Saudi government began to set greater restrictions for the number of pilgrims. This resulted in the first substantial decrease in numbers. In 2013 pilgrims also stayed away due to worldwide fears of the deadly MERS outbreak on the Arabian Peninsula coupled with Saudi governmental fears regarding the Ebola outbreak (the Saudi government banned pilgrims from Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, effectively preventing 7400 Muslims scheduled to come from those nations). This saw the number of pilgrims fall to just 1.98 million (with 1.38 million from outside Saudi Arabia). Even greater restrictions followed so that 2014 was among the smallest pilgrimages in years: 1.4 million from abroad and 700,000 from within Saudi Arabia. 

This decline was notable since the number of pilgrims had consistently risen before the 2013 concerns. Indeed, the 2012 hajj was the largest in history, according to the official Saudi Ministry of Hajj, with 3.2 million people participated in the pilgrimage. For each year, the number of visitors had marginally though steadily grown (for instance, 2.8 million in 2010; 2.9 million in 2011). 

In 2015 saw much greater numbers of pilgrims. While there were still fears over MERS, Saudi concerns regarding the Ebola outbreak had lessened notably. As a result, in 2015, the Hajj saw 1.95 million pilgrims, just shy of the 2 million mark. While this represented an increase of 600,000 visitors, this was still far short of the figures reached before Saudi authorities began placing greater restrictions on the number of visitors. 

Unfortunately, the increased number of pilgrims coupled with inadequate crowd control resulted in two disasters: the Mecca Crane Collapse and the Mina Stampede. First on September 11, 2015 in the days leading up to the hajj, a crane collapsed on a crowd of worshippers, killing 111 and injuring scores of others. The crane, ironically, had been working to improve the safety of Mecca's Grand Mosque. Far worse, though, came during the 2015 hajj itself. At approximately 9:00 AM on September 24, 2015 for reasons still not clear, pilgrims began to stampede. The uncontrolled crowd panicked and when it had subsided, at thousands of pilgrims had died from suffocation or being crushed or trampled to death. The figure provided by the Associated Press and Al-Jazeera was 2177 dead. Iran's government announced that over 4700 people had died (although they provided no evidence for their claim). http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/10/19/hajj-disaster-death-toll-over-two-thousand.html 

In 2016, the hajj pilgrim numbers fell again, though only slightly to 1.86 million pilgrims. This may have been in response to the 2015 disaster, and officially limiting numbers.

(For official Hajj statistics see the "Hajj Statistics," Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's General Authority for Statistics site at: https://www.stats.gov.sa/en/page/93 
For more on the 2013 situation, please see http://www.ummah.com/forum/showthread.php?379857-Hajj-2013-Statistics   http://arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article529551.ece and http://blogs.voanews.com/breaking-news/2011/11/05/saudi-arabia-hosts-nearly-3-million-hajj-pilgrims/ . For more on the 2014 hajj including Ebola concerns, please see: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29461229 
For figures over time, see, Number of Hajj pilgrims in Saudi Arabia 1999-2019, Statista:  Hajj statistics (Statista)

Nature of the Hajj

The Qaabah
The Hajj itself runs for five days, starting on the 8th of Dhu al-Hijjah (that is, beginning two days before Eid al-Adha begins) and continues through the end of the Eid on 12 Dhu al-Hijjah. The Hajj involves many rituals and special prayers, and this overview makes no effort to fully describe them.  Among the most notable of these is the Tawaf. The Tawaf is the counterclockwise circling seven times of Islam’s holiest site, the Qaabah (or Kaabah). The Qaabah is a large granite, cube-shaped structure which Muslims believe that Ibraham and Ismail built together after Ismail moved to Mecca. The Qaabah is covered with black silk and gold.  Inside the Qaabah is the Black Stone (al-Hajr al-Aswad) which is the focal point of the Tawaf. Many Muslims believe that the Black Stone was given to Adam and Eve to tell them where to build an altar. The Black Stone was then placed in the Qaabah by Abraham and Ismail. The Black Stone was already an object of worship when the Prophet Mohammed first visited it and kissed it. Following the Prophet’s example, pilgrims traditionally kissed the Black Stone on each of the seven circuits around the Qaabah. As the throngs of pilgrims grew, this has largely become impossible so today the pilgrims point toward the stone with their hand as they near it. The movement of the pilgrims during the Tawaf is felt to symbolize the unity of ummah (the community of all believers) as they worship the unity of Allah. 

Another important ritual is the Ramy al-Jamarat or Stoning of the Devil.  Islam views the sacrifice as a test of Ibrahim and Ismail. During this test, Muslims believe that both Ibrahim and Ismail were tempted by Shaytaan (Satan).  Ibrahim and Ismail threw stones at Shaytaan, and this is re-enacted by pilgrims at the Hajj in the ceremony of the stoning of the jamarat. Pilgrims throw pebbles at three pillars in Mina, each of differing size and symbolically representing Shaytaan’s temptation of  Ibrahim, Hagar (Ismail’s mother) and Ismail to stop the sacrifice.

While the pilgrims on the Hajj are at the center of the most significant observance on the Eid al-Adha, it is by no means limited to them alone. Indeed, Muslims the world over celebrate Eid al-Adha.  On the Eid, Muslims bathe in the morning and then traditionally dress in their best clothing before going to the mosque for special prayers. The services usually conclude with a khutba (or speech) with a spiritual message usually encouraging those listening to give up any grudges or ill will. After this, it is customary for worshippers to hug one another and to wish one another a Happy Eid.

Eid al-Adha Traditions and Food

In most traditions, believers, if (they can afford to do so) sacrifice an animal (usually a goat or sheep, although traditions vary) in commemoration of the animal God provided to Ibrahim for sacrifice in place of his son. Indeed, in West Africa the holiday is called Tabaski after this sacrifice. (For a video of Eid sacrifices on Tabaski, please see here). Where animals are sacrificed, the meat is shared with others, particularly those who are less fortunate.  Many Muslims also donate food of all sorts – not just the sacrificed animal -- to the poor on the holiday.

Sheer korma

Traditions vary somewhat around the world for Eid al-Adha. In Pakistan and India after special morning Eid prayers, Muslims traditionally eat a dish called sheer korma.
Sheer korma is a mix of sweet milk, dates and vermicelli. Later in the day, South Asian Muslims also often eat dishes made from the sacrificed animal, with mutton biryani (sheep with saffron rice), mutton korma (sheep stew) and kofta (meatballs in special gravy). 

Moroccan boulfaf
In Morocco, the post-prayer breakfast is customarily herbel (wheat porridge with sugar, milk, honey and orange-flower water). The main meal of the day usually includes lamb, especially boulfaf (grilled lamb liver kababs).

Bosnian Lonac
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, people traditionally follow morning services with a large lunch of Bosnian lonac (vegetable and meat stew made in a clay pot), dolmas (stuffed onions with paprika) and sarmas (stuffed cabbage). This is usually followed by sweet desserts such as baklava.

USPS first Eid stamp (2001)
North American Eid Postal Stamps

In the United States, traditions greatly vary with people often dressing in clothes and eating foods from their ethnic origin. Eid al-Adha, as with other Islamic holidays, has received greater public attention in recent years. In 2001, the US Postal Service began releasing Eid stamps (covering both Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha). The US Postal Service released other variations of the design in 2011 and 2013 with a modified horizontal design issued in 2016. The design and lettering of all four US stamps are the work of US calligrapher Mohamed Zakariya. The stamps continue to be sold each year at Eid.

In 2017, Canada Post issued its first (and to date only) Eid postage stamp. Canadian artists Doreen Colonel and Erin Enns of Entro Communications designed the stamp.

Leader Recognition in United States

In 1999, then-First Lady Hilary Clinton hosted what became a tradition of Eid dinners at the White House. In 2003, George W. Bush was the first President to publicly wish Happy Eid from the White House. This tradition continued under President Barack Obama. In 2017, President Donald Trump discontinued the dinner, although he and First Lady Melania Trump continued the tradition of sending formal Eid greetings from the White House each year. 

As always, I welcome your corrections (or praise) and any other input.  In closing, let me wish you all an Eid Mubarek and a Blessed Eid!

Clipart Sources

For the image of boulfaf http://0.tqn.com/d/moroccanfood/1/I/H/4/-/-/boulfaf.JPG

For US Postal Service stamp: https://store.usps.com/store/product/buy-stamps/eid-greetings-S_556204

For Canada Post stamp: https://www.canadapost.ca/web/en/blogs/collecting/details.page?article=2017/05/24/eid&cattype=collecting&cat=stamps#

For more detail on all aspects of the Hajj, look at the Saudi government website from the Ministry of the Hajj :

For more on the White House Eid dinners, please see Trump breaks "White House Eid dinner tradition," BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-40402211